Stone cellar

As a building material for the erection of the cellar is perfect flagstone, which is placed on a clay mortar with the addition of chaff and a small amount of lime. Strength of the solution is that it is difficult to drive nails.
Before construction to be sorted by size and shape available flagstone.
Then leave it under cover for the autumn and winter - the stone should ripen.
Clay for the solution must be taken pure, without additives, and for this it is necessary to keep out in the open in the dumps and low ridges at least a year to melt and rain water had washed out of it and some impurities it acquired elasticity and uniformity.
Stone cellar (Fig. 100), like all others, it is better to arrange in a dry place with a low water table, which shall not pass closer than 70 cm from the mud-brick floor.

Каменный погреб с каменной погребицей

Fig. 100. Stone cellar with a stone the cellar: 1 - the stairs, 2 - a stone arch, W - the cellar, 4 - sinus, stabbed compacted clay.

To build a cellar in the dry season to avoid getting wet, and eroding the open pit rains. The main condition for the construction of the cellar - fast, without affecting the quality of the work which is carried out without interruption.
To descend into the cellar to install stairs. It can be a stone in the form of steps, and can be made of wood. In the latter case, to choose to be more solid and stable and constantly monitor her condition.
Stone Cellars advantage is the extensive the cellar - aboveground buildings, as laid out in stone-limestone with clay mortar.
In the construction of the cellar, usually caused quite a lot of difficulties, but the main one - masonry vaulted roof. Here it is necessary to calculate and lay the top of the castle vault (odd) stone, which seemed to "lock" wedging vault, ensuring high strength and reliability of the assembly cellar. Masonry arch is a wooden mold with wheels. The clutch should be carried out simultaneously on both sides.
In dry land areas cellar with a vaulted roof can be constructed also from adobe raw on a clay solution. Raw is made from the most locally available raw materials - clay, sand and chopped straw (cutting) and dried in the sun. He is one of the cheapest building materials in the southern regions of the country. And as a solution for masonry recommended clay dough, mix with sliced ​​straw (straw length to W cm) or chaff.
Today, it is less and less possible to see the cellar, made of stone, basically they are built of brick.
In Figure 101. shows a modern stone cellar, built of red brick. Overlapping cellar - of slabs, insulated clay grease and soil.
Погреб из кирпича

Fig. 101. Cellar brick: 1 - base coating and pouring fuel bitumen, 2 - concrete; W - hard-packed gravel soil.

Insulation cellar with bricks
You need to add brick wall thickness of half a brick. The clutch should be carried out in the usual way. To masonry was more durable, it must be reinforced with wire thickness W mm or more. Reinforcement is done through 5-b of masonry. Laid in masonry joints fittings must be attached to rebar wire minimum thickness of 2 mm. Performed masonry plaster recommended.
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