Cellars

Cellar - is the storage for vegetables, potatoes and other products. The cellar is arranged at different levels in relation to the earth's surface. Thus, there are three versions:
- Completely buried cellars;
- Poluzaglublennye cellars;
- Ground cellar.
Modification depends mainly on the hydrogeological conditions of the place where you want the device cellar, that is, on the soil properties and the availability and level of groundwater. More on this issue we discuss below.
As for the construction of the cellar, it should be selected based on the size of the site, which will be built, the availability of certain materials for the construction of the cellar of a design, as well as the number of products that you intend to store in the cellar.

Masonry walls
The walls of the cellar perform, usually made of wood, brick, stone and concrete.
Masonry made of rubble, rubble or ashlar stone, which gives more styling to the correct form. During the masonry necessary to ensure that the joints between the stones were no more than 10-15 mm. The thinner seams, the lower masonry settles and the less need of solution.
Prior to the laying of the stones must be cleaned of dust and dirt and be sure to moisten. The stones must first be laid dry, that is to try. During the pre-laying stone should be inverted several times, that he lay down as tight as possible.
After that, the stones should be put on the solution. They should be well bandaged to ensure strength of the masonry.
The gaps between the stones required a solution with crushed stone, that is, first put the solution, and then rubble utaplivaya last in the solution. Stones first-line recommended well compacted by tamping the soil. The stones should be laid very tightly, trying to pick up for each series of samples of the same thickness.
Each stone must be laid with overlapping seam masonry. If the stone blocks its middle seam, which means that received an excellent dressing. And the dressing is necessary to pay special attention, selecting for this purpose the stones size.
Masonry thickness depends on the soil in which to be built cellar. If soil is strong, does not crumble, the walls of the cellar can be subtle. Loose and moist soil requires thicker walls. The clutch can be run on different solutions, but the thickness of joints shall not exceed 10 mm. Masonry strength can be increased by applying a brick soaked in water, because with brick mortar adheres much more strongly than the dry.
During laying recommended spread outer and inner side walls of the cellar of a brick, and laid in the middle of the battle of the wall.
The clutch is recommended to perform on a job well done and isolated ground. For evenness of masonry at the corners of the cellar walls should be set poryadovki firmly fasten them tight and thin cord - these and checked horizontal stacking. And the cord does not hang loose, with long masonry walls should be installed interim poryadovki or put on the solution of the individual bricks that would be performed on the edge of the wall in the 30-50 mm, thus becoming beacons.
On each set of previously recommended to put the so-called mile - of masonry on the outside and inside walls. Far off place the dry, without mortar, but so that the gap between the bricks formed by the thickness of the seam 10-12 mm.
Having laid a mile away, you should pull the rope so he retreated from the edge of the wall (masonry) to 12 mm. In this case, the cord will not move while laying bricks and masonry will withstand straightness.
The clutch can be carried out without a mile. In this case, the wall every 1-1.5 m should be put piles of bricks, take a portion of the solution for 3-5 bricks, spread it on the part of the wall, smooth and put a brick on the solution, while tapping on the surface of the trowel handle.
Instead of using the cord can make a vertical wall, a wooden formwork. To set perfectly vertical uprights with internal and external parties should be consolidated edged boards of 25-30 mm. The distance between them should be the thickness of the wall. On the racks to advance to cause the ranks of masonry.
The clutch can be carried out by any means, but it is necessary so that the upper surface of brick was strictly on a level with the edge of the boards and at the same time be sure to observe ligation sutures. Laying the first row, the board should be raised to the next course of masonry, etc.
In the process of laying must remain aware of the seams. If the front and inside of the walls will be plastered in the future, the clutch should be carried vpustoshovku, that is a solution in the joints should not be up to the plane of the wall in the 10-12 mm. To do this, preferably with a solution for masonry walls do not bring them to the edge of 30-40 mm.
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