Basements

Basement - underground room, arrange, usually below ground level. Depending on the type of construction and the materials used cellars used for storage of materials, tools, devices for the studio, and sometimes as an additional dwelling.
Device basement plan prior to construction of the house. And while the basement plan should be an integral part of the plan at home.
Choosing materials that are building the walls of buildings, is quite diverse. As for the basement walls, everything is different. Since the basement is below ground level, then, respectively, and the requirements for the density and strength of the material are presented quite high. Below, we consider the construction of brick walls.

Putting some brick walls
Brick walls basements tend to be solid and hollow. As for the solid, their best to spread the porous and hollow block.
Of a full-fledged common expedient to erect a brick cavity wall with filling voids slag. Brickwork performed installed inside the house scaffolding height 1-1.2 m
Solid walls are laid out using a two-or multi-row of dressing masonry.
The thickness of the solid plaster the inside walls with winter temperatures down to -20 ° C should be 51 cm at lower - 64 cm thickness of 10-12 mm stitches.
To perform masonry in cement mortar, which is used instead of sand powder pumice tuff, slag or ash. As plasticizers can add lime or clay.
Begin laying the corners better, bringing them up to a height of 7-8 rows, and then to spread the walls between them. Always make sure the horizontal rows, and for the correct ligation. Before laying the bricks should be wetted with water, in which case it would be better to bond with the solution. And if you decide to plaster the wall, the masonry should be maintained so that the solution does not fill the joints in the wall about 1 cm in masonry walls to keep doors and windows to the fourth, overlapping webs of different types. Wooden bridges are made of bars of 10-15 cm thick, the ends of which, covered with a layer of asphalt or tar paper, deepened into a wall at 25 cm, as well as all other types of bridges.
In order to independently produce concrete bridge, you must first make a casing, the width of which shall be equal to the wall thickness, and length - 50 cm more than the width of the overlapped the door or window opening. In the mold must be placed a grid of reinforcing wire diameter of 6-8 mm, and it should not be placed at the bottom, and a little on the small raised bars.
If the opening width up to 120 cm, the solution layer, which need to fill the grid, should be 7 cm thick, and if the width of the opening is more, the thickness - about 14 cm
As for ordinary brick bridge, it is also placed on the valve. To do this, on top of the opening should be put out of the formwork boards on which to put the solution layer thickness of 2 cm, and in it - up to 10 bars fittings included in the wall at 25 cm Then put a layer of mortar thickness of 5 cm after solidification formwork must be removed.
Formwork should also be used and vykladyvanii canted jumper. Brick on it to lay on the edge of the edges to the middle with a slope at the edge of what is necessary for the formation of the wedge (Fig. 99).


Конструктивные решения кладки сплошных стен


Конструктивные решения сплошных стен
Конструктивные решения кладки сплошных стен

Fig. 99. Constructive solutions masonry solid walls: a - a cut on the window wall, 1 - blind area, 2 - layer of waterproofing, NE - Cap 4 - reinforced concrete bridge, 5 - ledge, b - a window box, 7 - floor, b - podshivnoy wooden cornice; in brick-molding, 8 - fixing wire 9 - rafters, 10-mauerlat 11 - lining, 12 - only d - bearing beam on the wall, 11 - Lining 13 - close up tight end of the beam, 14 - cranial bar.

As for hollow walls, they are the two half-brick wall that every 60-100 cm bind vertical masonry (as in half-brick). Openings are filled with slag or other insulating fabrics. A top and bottom openings and ceilings are made at the level of the horizontal brick bridges.
The thickness of the wall, depending on the winter air temperatures of 40, 53, 60 cm at -15, -20 and - 30 ° C, respectively.
Filler to fill the voids should be thick layers of about 15 cm, each layer must be compacted, and every three layers to pour cement mortar. It should be noted that care must be taken to ensure that the voids no water. Top of the wall in case of a work be sure to close the film.

Measures to protect the basement walls
When exposed to soil moisture and lack of hydraulic pressure to be applied waterproofing exterior basement walls bituminous plasters, protective plaster, putty or protective waterproofing concrete. If the device provides efficient drainage, the above-mentioned types of waterproofing can be applied even if short-acting hydraulic head.
In addition, for short periods of hydraulic pressure to be applied waterproofing basement walls from two layers of rolled materials. And if the device provides an effective drainage, waterproofing roll can also be used for long-term effects of hydraulic pressure.
With prolonged exposure hydraulic pressure, and the presence of ground water waterproofing should be used only as a "bath", made a minimum of three layers or webs of protective concrete.
Waterproofing surfaces, made with the use of bitumen plasters, protective plaster, waterproofing mastic and roll materials should be protected mechanically stable layer. Further, note that the surface of walls, waterproofing which is carried out using bitumen plasters, should be made of a uniform, durable material free of defects and irregularities, and they also should not have dirt and weaknesses and should not be rough.
As for the brick walls of the cellars, then before you apply them liquid bituminous paint, they should be aligned special plaster compound that eliminates all irregularities.
Waterproofing exterior basement walls bituminous paint should be done at least in two or three layers of hot-cold skim coating layers, carefully and evenly applied to the dried primer. If you need to get the moisture barrier with increased strength, it can be applied putty to be applied over a primer layer with a trowel or spatula.
Bituminous paint should be applied as close as possible to the concrete, without gallop. Therefore, through the use of forms and even dense enough compaction to be obtained even surface. Next, the prepared for bitumen coating, the surface should be dried apply primer. As an exception, on a wet surface of the wall waterproofing can be applied in the form of an emulsion.
As for the protective plaster, then it should be applied only on the wall surface of a homogeneous solid material with no defects and large bumps. Blooms and pollution, as well as the sharp corners on the concrete surface to remove, open seams masonry paint over. Dried surface must be sufficiently pre-wetted. And if on a smooth or highly porous surface has to do plaster spraying, it should be applied to the day before the conduct of the stucco.

Protective plaster made of cement with sand-cement ratio of 1: 2 to 1: 3, with sand size up to 3 mm, with a content of fine particles as small as 0.25 mm in about 20 parts by weight of the introduction of the sealing means. The solution should be applied to the carefully prepared surface, at least, in two layers and a thickness of 2 cm to pounce by hand or by plastering machine in such a way as to permit sufficient adhesion and sealing. The second layer of plaster should be applied on a sufficiently solid bottom layer.
Plastering should not be performed under direct sunlight and strong wind. If necessary, the surface should be svezheoshtukaturennye for some time (at least 48 hours) to close. Work must be planned in such a way that the plastering abutting surfaces could be completed without interruption. If splicing of separate parts of the surface yet necessary, the layers should be done with overlap of about 15 cm
When using mastic surface being treated should not have any visible cracks or later should also not undergo any linear or volumetric strain, leading to the formation and propagation of cracks in a section of the wall. Before applying the waterproofing mastic brick wall must be level with plaster, smoothing all irregularities.
Waterproof mastic should be applied to the concrete as soon as possible without plastering. Therefore, using a good, tight fitting casing and adequate compaction should seek to obtain a flat surface. If the surface is too smooth, needs an intermediate adhesive layer.
When applying waterproofing mastic surface should be soaked with water. About concrete before applying the mastic should be wet. Smooth, having low water-absorbing capacity of the surface of the walls at least 12 hours before the next wet.
Waterproofing mastic should be applied in at least two layers, the second layer should be applied as close as possible after the completion of the necessary strength and achievements of the first layer. The manufacturer's instructions exceed the least desirable options. If the lower layer is already seized, the next layer can be applied only after its fully cured and proper training base.
Work on the application of waterproofing waterproofing sealant should be planned so that plastering abutting surfaces could be completed without interruptions. If jointing surface areas required, the individual layers of plaster should overlap by at least 25 cm Waterproofing mastic should not be applied in direct sunlight, rain and strong winds.
Interior surfaces waterproofing exterior basement walls should hold only when the outer effective waterproofing Impossible and parts of structures exposed to harmful influences.

If the room is on the inside waterproofing exterior walls is characterized by high air humidity, the walls should oblitsevat inside layer of insulation, which possibly should have permeable coating. And if the parts are not available outside of the exterior walls have to arrange internal waterproofing, we should not isolate only the relevant sections of the wall and ceiling. The adjacent lateral walls should also be isolated in depth
building is not less than 1 m
As for waterproofing roll, it should stick to the two layers on the entire plane, the longitudinal joints between the individual layers must be offset by at least half the width of the stripes and the cross - at least Z0 see Overlapping strips one layer on joints must be at least 10 cm
The surface of the roll structure must be flat, dry and free of gaps. In concrete walls should be removed all formwork beading and sharp edges.
The materials are suitable for waterproofing rolls printed with the factory waterproofing, except materials containing ephemeral pads (included) and plastic films used for waterproofing of structures.
Waterproofing using web materials should be carried out only in dry weather when the outdoor temperature is less than 5 a.
As for the protective concrete, it must be produced on the basis of aggregate with a grain size of 15 to Z0 mm. Water-cement ratio should not exceed 0.6.
Can also be used various sealing agents. Minimum concrete cover, including collars, have a protective concrete structures must be equal to W cm and not less than 0.5 cm exceed the maximum aggregate size.
Laying protective concrete casing should be done so as to prevent its disintegration and still achieve a full seal. You should not use any support funds remaining in the concrete (eg, struts).
Work should be planned so as to avoid technological interruptions.
Construction of a protective concrete must be protected from drying and frost. At least 20 days should keep them moist and, if necessary, close the insulating mats. Raspalublennye protective concrete walls should be, if possible, once covered with earth. If this is not possible, the surface of the wall should be protected layered bituminous paint.
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