Hand tools

Hand tools are intended for work with the application of their own strength. Most of them can be easily replaced mechanical counterparts, which are driven by the power supply. But despite the fact that the level of technological development has reached great heights, some hand tools are still essential.
Hand tools appeared 50,000 years ago, when prehistoric man first started to think about how to make it easier to exist. And the first thing he thought was: if you pick up a stone, you can increase the force of impact arm. How the first ancient type of percussion instrument.
The man noticed that a fall from a height or bounce it on the stone breaks to form another form of stones with sharp edges. Of the resulting fragments was selected the one that had to go to the best hand, and had conveniently located cutting edge. It was a hand-ax. So there was a second type of tool - cutting.
Technology was born in this process. Application minced showed that to succeed need to look hard enough stones for its manufacture. The cutting edge in soft stones quickly blunted, forcing waste time making another chopper.
Materials science emerged from the experience of the comparative evaluation of different types of stones to create a slashed with sharp edges and high durability selecting the appropriate type of stone.
Experience of using this instrument showed that its cutting properties provided that the edge has an acute form (wedge). Opening wedge and cutting properties was one of the great discoveries of prehistoric man. It is on a par with the discovery of fire and the ability to produce it.

Used for breaking up hard ground, raskernovki solid ballast, soil and ice. But it is also used for this purpose pickaxe. Spud has a section at both ends, like a hammer, and Kirk made crooked spade, "crutch", or "beak", in the same direction.
Weight picks - 3.4 kg. Made of steel Art. 45. Its working ends are hardened to a hardness of 35 - 40 Ks.

When applying foundation or leveling of the soil prior to construction using certain types of shovels (Figure 9).

Виды строительных лопат

Fig. 9. Types of construction shovels (dimensions in mm): a - a shovel with a straight cutting part b - a shovel with a pointed bottom of the c - mortar shovel.

Shovel with a straight cutting part
Applied during the work associated with the removal of the soft soil and leveling the soil. Recommended to choose it according to their own strengths and capabilities. The optimal size of the cutting part (knife) - Z0 x 28 cm

Spade pointed
Indispensable when you need to remove a soil like gravel. However, we advise to pay attention to the fact that it is not designed for surfacing.
This type of bucket is used for digging trenches for the foundation of a small building, such as garden shed.
Pick up a shovel should be in line with its growth, and to work - only with gloves.

Shovel with a sharp cutting part
Used for mixing and alleviate various solutions used during construction.
Blade length is about Z0 cm, width - 25 cm The optimum size of the cutting should be slightly greater than 1 cm in diameter P5. Graft can be made from both wood and plastic.
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