Measuring tools

Without them it is impossible to perform even the simplest as construction and finishing operations.

Roulette
This type of measuring instrument - is a thin flexible strip of steel, encased in a metal or plastic housing. Unwound tape automatically when you press the button (lock). The length ranges from 100 to 1000 cm Roulette great length fitted with plastic or steel handle n-shaped. Division suffered through every inch. The numbers marked with centimeters and tens of centimeters. Tape is used to measure the quantities of straight (Fig. 1a, b).



Контрольно-измерительные инструменты



Fig. 1. Control and measuring instruments: a, b - the types of roulettes, in - folding rule.



Folding rule
Is used to measure the horizontal and vertical laying.
Consists of ten segments connected to each other studs, each 10 cm (Fig. 1). The meter is made of plastic, iron and softwood. To extend the life of each joint lubricated with engine oil.
Should carry folding rule in a case or in a case. Do not wear meter in your pocket, as the sharp edges can damage the clothes and get hurt.

Dimensional strip of wood
It is used in determining the size of large parts. The length of this rail must be at least E-5 m, width - 4 cm, height - see SW

Dimensional tape
Necessary when it is impossible to pinpoint the detail sizes with tape measure and wooden slats.

Elbow
Very simple and easy to use. But in spite of its simplicity, it is of several types, each of which has its peculiarities and differences.

Elbow ordinary
Preferably, the length of the sides, forming a right angle, it is at least 90-100 cm (Fig. 2).


Угольники
Fig. 2. Squares: a - wooden b - metal.



This type of polygon can make and most.
Made from both metal and wood, but wood swells with moisture, and when drying the film gon be deformed.

Erunok
Is the angle of the two plates, one of which is fixed in the middle of the other at an angle of 45 °. This angle is also useful in determining the angle 1Z5O.

Bevel
Used for transferring angles without their precise pogradusnogo clarification. This tool consists of two wooden plates, mounted on a hinge.
II - Angle-tsentroiskatel - II
This angle is used when looking at the center of cylindrical parts. It consists of a line attached to the middle of the base of an isosceles triangle. Elbow is placed on the cylindrical surface and then gradually moves to the center, and the target value is the diameter of the circle.

Nutrometr
Represents some sort of a compass, the ends of which turned out. Used to measure the inside diameter of various parts.

Compass
Used to vyrisovyvaniya round parts on workpieces, as well as the rapid transfer of the marking.
Usually it is made of metal, but sometimes you can meet and wood. The compass is known to mankind for over two thousand years. The first compasses were fairly primitive and consisted of two flat sticks with sharp ends, fastened together with wooden pin. In our time, the form of a compass significantly changed.

Trammel
Used to measure the parts. For this side of the part is placed between the pole and the frame, the top mustache will show the size of the measured distances (Fig. 3).



Штангенциркуль

Fig. 3. Caliper.


Reymus
Used for application to the surface of the bar parallel lines. Surface gauge itself consists of two thick planks, which are inserted in a large block. On one side of the bars there are sharp studs - and produced their markup.

Bracket
Used for drawing lines with manual sample timber under the jack and lug. At the core of the device is a piece of wood brackets, which on the one hand at a distance of 1/3 of the length of selected quarter. Then on this quarter at a distance drive in nails that are applied in the form of marking parallel lines.

Builder's level
Used to check the horizontal and vertical directions. It is equipped with a special device in the form of slightly curved pipes made of glass. Inside the tubes is alcohol. Two lines in the highest part of the tube is the vertical direction. The location of the air bubble between the lines of the second tube indicates the horizontal direction. The length of the level should be
40-80 cm (Fig. 4).


Виды уровней


Fig. 4. Types of levels: - metal, b, c - wood.



When buying tools necessary to pay attention to the fact that he kept reading in all directions.
For this we must turn to the level of 1800, before placing it on the plane. Then you need to look closely at the bubble: it must remain between the two dimensional lines.
Store it, and transfer should only be a special case, and while working to try not to drop it. Level - a fragile thing and can quickly fail.

Flexible layer
If you can get a flexible level of industrial design, in which case it can be replaced with a flexible tube (as in the system for internal infusion) (Fig. 5). It is much more convenient to the factory, as it is a solid sighting (sight) window, and do not need vymeryat number of filled in the water level. The tube length is calculated as follows: length encases the surface multiplied by 1.5.



Гибкий уровень



Fig. 5. Flexible layer: a - general view, b - drawing extremities.



Bob
Plumb bob is used to check the verticality of the walls, columns, piers and right angles of masonry.
It consists of a cylinder-cord and a weight of 15 mm in diameter, weighing 150-200 g (Fig. 6). When using a plumb line to check how tightly bound to lead sinker, and only if it is attached well, is ready to begin.


Виды отвесов




Fig. 6. Types of pitches.



Apply to plummet as follows: go to the corner of the inspected at arm's length, then the crook of his elbow, unwind plummet, holding the end of the cord is at eye level. Once the above steps are made, it is determined whether the angle between the floor and thread plumb angle between the floor and the object under test.
Plummet stored in a dry and cool place next to other construction equipment. But before you put it in storage, need to turn the rope so he did not get lost.

Dragged
Used when marking lines on the edge of the workpiece. Is a large bar with a bevel on one end and to make nail driven. The lines are marked on the surface is the sharp end of the nail.

Mooring line
This twisted cord W mm thick, which stretches for miles between masonry poryadovkami and lighthouses. It is used as a guide to ensure straightness and horizontal rows of masonry and horizontal joints of uniform thickness. With cord mason determines what position should have a stacked brick less than a mile.
Install and reinstall the cord with double brackets, which is held on the rail voltage poryadovki prichalki cord-and the friction between the bracket and the poryadovkoy; zachalochnoy cord attached to the side bracket.
For storage and transportation is recommended to use the bag in a container the size of G50 x 260 x 100 mm.

Poryadovka
This special device consisting of parts, tubes, or rods with divisions corresponding to the thickness of the horizontal rows of masonry (77 mm for single and 100 mm for a thickening of brick), is intended to secure the mooring cable and ensure clarity of vertical and horizontal joints are trying to post wall. Poryadovki are metal corner, is a one-storey masonry (up to 1.8 m), with screw connection, and one wooden intermediate floor (to W m), with clamps and wedges.
Poryadovku used as follows: the outer surface of the wall they are placed so that the side on which the marked rows of masonry, were addressed to the bricklayer. Poryadovku attached to masonry p-type steel holders. Doing it this way. In the course of the horizontal joints of masonry every 6-8 rows height administered holders-duty, placing them one above the other. Bracket should enter into a wall at their ends and crossbar.

Putting it on the second holder of 1-2 rows of bricks in brackets poryadovku inserted and secured with wooden wedges.
Poryadovku removed, being on stage, together with the holders, without removing the wedges. To do this, gently rocking her in a plane perpendicular to the wall surface. Holders, despite the resistance of the solution, out of horizontal masonry joints and poryadovku raised with them (Fig. 7).


Инвентарная деревянная порядовка


Fig. 7. Inventory poryadovka wood (dimensions in mm).

Reticle board
Needed for staking heights and planes (Fig. 8).


Визирные доски


Fig. 8. Reticle board (dimensions in mm).
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