Waterproofing masonry structures

For the protection of masonry structures from moisture necessary to arrange waterproofing.

Types and purpose of waterproofing. Masonry, made of any material that has the ability to absorb and hold water. Therefore the stone structures that have direct contact with the ground, exposed to water saturation. Water can penetrate into the cellars and masonry, extending up the brickwork, to reach the first and even the second floor, causing dampness in buildings. In order to protect the foundations, walls and other structures from moisture, it is necessary to arrange waterproofing, painting (Paint waterproofing) or okleivaya (okleechnoy waterproofing) the surface waterproofing materials. Used as insulation as asphalt or cement (with special cement) plaster.
Spray waterproofing is carried bitumastic of different grades of bitumen and filler (talc, hydrated lime, asbestos), as well as materials, synthetic resins and polymers. Okleechnoy waterproofing is a rolled materials (gidroizol, roofing, insulation, Brizol) that is bonded to the asphalt or other mastics. On the walls of cellars or basements waterproofing surface applied on the side adjacent to the ground, to the level of the blind area or pavement. In some cases, the high level of groundwater okleechnoy isolation protects the soil from clay lock clamping walls of brick and so on (Fig. 110).
Гидроизоляция фундаментов

Fig. 110. Waterproofing of foundations: a - vertical, b - horizontal, 1 - clay layer 2 - okleechnoy insulation; W - horizontal isolation, 4 - clamping wall.

Horizontal waterproofing is used to protect the walls and basements of buildings from ground moisture that seeps from the foundation base. In bespodvalnyh buildings make it in the basement of a 20 cm above the blind area or pavement. If the blind area has a slope along the wall of the building, then make waterproofing terraces so that the insulation layers overlap by a length equal to four times the distance between them in height. In buildings with basements horizontal insulation suit on two levels: the first - the floor of the basement, the other in the basement of the blind area above or pavement. Depending on the degree of water saturation of the soil, the water table level and other conditions of the waterproofing layer horizontal insulation made as a tie of cement, portland cement with sealing additives (sodium aluminate, etc.) with a thickness of 20-25 mm or two layers of roofing felt or roofing material, glued wax (only - Degteva, roofing
- Bituminous). In some cases, make as waterproofing asphalt screed layer 25-Z0 mm.

Device isolation
To obtain high-quality insulation insulated surface is cleaned of debris, dirt, dust, align and dried. Spray insulation is usually made of a bituminous mastics. It is applied with a brush on the dried and primed surface, using techniques of painting works. If necessary, pre-insulated surface leveling mortar (eg rubble walls). Paste is applied to the surface of the layers in the 2-W admission to cover the missing space.
The thickness of each layer should be about 2 mm. Apply each subsequent layer of insulation is permitted only after the previous layer has cooled down and will check its quality.
Paint the structure must be solid, free from voids, cracks, irregularities and gaps (these defects occur if sealant is applied to the surface of untreated or raw). Clearing defective places, dried and coated with mastic over. To protect the foundation of your building from moisture, you must first make the so-called blind area (Fig. 111).
Устройство отмостков

Fig. 111. Otmostku device: 1 - cement, 2 - water drainage ditch, and h - broken bricks, 4 - Clay, 5 - soil, b - the foundation.

When the device horizontal waterproofing asphalt from solution or by a foundation or basement walls a layer of this material ties and continue laying the normal sequence, laying the first stone in the ranks of pre-stretched a layer of masonry mortar. When laying horizontal okleechnoy waterproofing of roofing or roofing felt first on the prepared surface of masonry bonded to the first layer of insulation. According to it, put a layer of heated mastic thickness not exceeding
1-2 mm and it immediately stick the second layer. Layers to better pin, roofing felt or only pre-cleaned of protective mica or sand spreading, they prepare for the width and roll-to roll out in the device isolation on the surface is plastered with putty. The second layer of insulation covered with a layer of hot mastic thickness of 2 mm and continue laying.
When waterproofing of roll material use different tools. Steel brushes clean roofing and only from mica or sand spreading, brush or steel paddles applied and spread with mastic; steel blades cut the roll material into pieces the desired width and length. Okleechnoy waterproofing side surfaces of foundations and basement walls with webs are accomplished in the same order as the horizontal.
Before gluing waterproofing base cleaned of dust and debris and dried: the dusty and wet surfaces can be applied mastic as insulation flaky. The surface of the insulated structure must be flat, dry and free of depressions and mounds. Before gluing it first ogruntovyvayut mastic, then glued one by one insulation layers, each layer okleechnoy vertical isolation combined with horizontal insulation overlap by at least 150 mm, to place the joint horizontal and vertical isolation prevent water from entering.
Joints in layers of insulation also make lap 100-150 mm. Horizontal and slightly inclined (25 °) surface material bonded to the case. After the primer has dried, roll roll and glued one end of the flag, fixing the desired direction of the material. After that, roll up roll is applied to the isolated surface layer of mastic and roll back roll, gluing it to the base. In each successive layer of cloth overlap the previous layer is not less than 100 mm in the longitudinal joints and not less than 150 mm in the cross. One location over another seam in the adjacent layers of isolation and label roll materials in perpendicular direction is not allowed. Vertical and highly inclined (25 °) surface coils glued areas - jaw height 1.2-1.5 m, in the upward direction.
Pre-rolls are cut out in pieces with the overlap. When applied carefully grind rolls to the ground and to the previously glued layers wooden spatulas with long handle; horizontal surfaces affixed materials, in addition, of rollers weighing 80 - 70 kg, with a soft plates. Additional coat with overlapping seams with mastic, wrung with ointments and rolling of the material. The outer surface of the last layer of insulating material are covered with a continuous layer of mastic and sprinkle hot dry sand.
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