Rubble masonry

Called rubble masonry natural stone, irregularly shaped, with two roughly parallel surfaces (bed). The natural stones suitable for masonry, include limestone, sandstone, coquina, tuff, granite and boulder foundations for the construction of buildings up to two storeys. Used in the construction of rubble stones usually have a lot to Z0 kg.
Stones larger magnitude previously split into smaller ones. This process is called plintovkoy. Along with the sharp corners plintovkoy chop stones make the so-called prikolku stones fit to form a box.
When rubble is difficult to achieve a thorough dressing, as in laying bricks, so the stones do not have the right shape and vary in size. Therefore, selection and arrangement of stones in verstovye ranks and back filling of masonry made for dressing in such a way that during the construction of the walls of stones can be laid alternately then the long side - spoons, the short - poke. Therefore, in each row of masonry bonder series alternate with Stretcher bond and stones in miles and in the back filling. In the adjacent rows of Stretcher bond bonder laid stones, and over Stretcher bond - bonder. Thus a bandage seams rubble, which is similar to a chain ligation in laying bricks. Also laid stones in the ranks at the intersection and in the corners of the walls (Fig. 48).

Перевязка кладки из бутового камня

Fig. 48. Ligation of rubble stone masonry: a - walls, b - cross the wall and in - the corners.

When laying stones are picked up and customize, so that possible to create a number of the same height laying in the range of 20 to 25 cm and horizontal seams. It is possible to stack the 2-W thin stone masonry in a row, and some large rocks can enter two adjacent row of masonry. Rubble perform "under the shoulder blade", "under the bracket" and "at bay" (Fig. 49).

Виды бутовой кладки
Fig. 49. Types of rubble: a - "under the shoulder blade" b - "on a bracket", in - in the mold, d - vraspor 1 - verst stones, 2 - solution; W - stacked gravel base, 4 - postelistye stones first row.



Laying "under the shoulder blade" perform horizontal rows 25 cm thick with recruiting and prikolkoy stones rasschebenkoy (filled) cavities and bandaging joints. The first bottom row are placed on the bottom of the prepared dry postelistyh of large stones, facing the bed down. The stones are flat against the ground, face down their rammer. Then fill the gaps between them with small stones or gravel and pour the liquid solution (with slump 1h-15 cm) to fill all the voids between the stones. Rasschebenku compacts also compaction. Next are laying poryadno observing dressing for plastic solution. Mobility solution for masonry shall comply with the standard dip cone 4-b, see
The process of laying the way "under the shoulder blade" is performed in the following order. Each subsequent row start with laying miles. Before the construction of indoor and outdoor mile at corners, intersections, and every 4.5 m on straight walls are placed in a solution majachnye stones. Lighthouse on the rocks on both sides of masonry pull prichalki, which in the process laying horizontal test line and the face of the straightness of foundations and walls. Stones for verstovye series matched for height, spread dry first, to find the most stable position in the masonry. Then lift the stone, plank solution layer 3-4 cm thick and set the stone finally, reining his hammer. Having laid a mile, starting to fill back filling.
Solution for back filling as for verstovye series offers a shovel and spread with a surplus that, when loading the stones he squeezed into the vertical joints between the stones. Back filling can be made of stones of all sizes and shapes with a tight fit (no swing) on ​​the bed and following ligation, alternating butting with spoons. For a seated stone face down or tamper with a hammer. Care should be taken so that the stones do not touch each other without mortar, as this greatly reduces the strength of masonry. After laying back filling perform rasschebenku masonry, reining in a weak solution of a hammer gravel and small stones. Number of surface-laid masonry align, adding a solution only in the grooves between the stones. Perform the following series of masonry in the same sequence.
Laying "on the bracket" is used in the construction of piers and columns. This masonry - a kind of masonry "under the shoulder blade," and it is made of stones of the same height, are selected through a template. Masonry with prikolkoy face as a kind of masonry "under the shoulder blade." In carrying out this masonry bumps on the face of the stone, placed in an outer or inner mile pre retrench. With prikolkoy face usually spread pillars and walls of cellars.
Laying in formwork way "under the shoulder blade" is performed to obtain a smooth surface on both sides of the wall at malopostelistom and uneven rubble. In this case, the selection of a stone for postelistyh verstovye series and angles can not do. Laying "on the bay" is made of rubble or torn cobblestone without matching stones and laying verstovye series.
Laying "on the bay" make a mold, which is set in the trenches after excavation. If the soil tight, the trench at a depth of up to 1.25 m can mason without shuttering vraspor the walls of the trench. The first layer of rubble height 20-25 cm is placed on a dry basis without vraspor solution with the walls and sealed compaction. Then fill all the gaps between the stones small stones and rubble. Packed layer of poured liquid solution so that all the gaps are filled.
Subsequent masonry are the same way horizontal rows 20-25 cm in height, filling each of masonry mortar. Rubble masonry "on the Gulf" because of its low strength is allowed only for the foundations of buildings up to 10 m, and only when construction on neprosadochnyh ground. Masonry using vibrocompaction has a strength of 25-40% more strength of masonry, made way "under the shoulder blade." The stones are placed in the following order: 1st row - dry, fill the voids between the gravel stones, and then spread a layer of a solution of 40-60 cm and sealed until the clutch until the solution is no longer penetrate into the masonry. Next, the solution is placed on the following series of stone way "under the shoulder blade", cover it with a solution and again compacted. This clutch is made in the formwork or vraspor the walls of the trenches in dense terrain.
Cyclopean masonry (Fig. 50) is used in cases where you want to create a decorative surface.


Циклопическая кладка
Fig. 50. Cyclopean masonry.



To do this, perform the rubble way "under the shoulder blade," and to face masonry used specially selected stones, placing them in vertical rows so as to create a picture from the joints between them. These seams do too convex (2-4 cm wide) and embroider them. Sometimes masonry angles while using rough-hewn stones, putting them vperevyazku the masonry wall. Applied also cyclopean facing ordinary rubble postelistymi stones after building masonry.
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