Laying sequence

Laying brick rows should begin with outdoor mile. Any masonry structures and their elements (walls, columns, trim, overlap), and laying bricks under the supporting parts of the structure independently of the ligation bonder begin and end there. Masonry can be poryadnym, step and mixed methods. Laying sequence shown in Figure 38 digits.


Последовательность кладки кирпича
Fig. 38. Sequence bricklaying: a - single-row system ligation b - multilayered system of bandaging, c, d - multilayered system of dressing mixed method (numbers indicate the sequence of masonry).

Poryadny way on the one hand very simple, on the other - time-consuming, as each subsequent series of masonry can begin only after the installation of miles and back filling the last.
This method is used primarily for single-row system, masonry by ligation. However, to facilitate the work, we recommend the following procedure: after installing header brick exterior mile Stretcher bond brick placed 2nd row outside a mile, then - a mile and back filling the inner wall. By following this sequence, rarely have to switch from external to internal miles than masonry finished first of a series, and then the other.
The step method is that first spread bonder mile 1st line and on it outside Stretcher bond mile from the 2nd to the b-th row. Then placed inside a mile bonder series and 5-series interior poryadno mile and back filling. Maximum step height in the sequence of six series. This method is recommended for multi-row dressing masonry.
Mixed method spread in the walls of a multilane ligation. First 7-10 rows of masonry spread poryadno. At a height of masonry 0, b-0, 8 m from 8-10 rows, it is recommended to use a staggered way clutch as clutch continue poryadnym way, especially when the thickness of the walls in the two bricks and more, it becomes difficult.
In this case, laying out the upper ranks of miles outside, you can rely on lower levels of masonry, which greatly facilitates the work.
Choice of method depends on the ductility of masonry mortar, brick or state season.

Masonry walls and corners

General rules of masonry walls
Laying bricks start with fixing angle and intermediate poryadovok. They are placed on the perimeter walls and plumb and level or leveling so that the notches for each row in all poryadovkah are in the same horizontal plane. Poryadovki placed on corners, intersections and junctions of walls, as well as the straight sections of the walls at a distance of 10-15 m from each other. After fixing and alignment poryadovok on them spread beacons (ubezhnye indent), placing them at the corners and on the border erected site (Figure 39). Then to poryadovkam zachalivayut cords prichalki.




Штрабы




Штрабы



Fig. 39. Indent: and - on a straight vertical walls, b - ubezhnaya in - ubezhnaya intermediate in the solid wall (lighthouse) d - vertical junction in the other wall, and e - ubezhnaya angular (lighthouse).

When masonry exterior miles cord-prichalku set for each row, pulling it to be placed at the top of the range with a space from the vertical plane of the laying on of 3-4 mm (Fig. 40).

Установка шнура-причалки
Fig. 40. Installing the plug-prichalki a - mooring bracket b - permutation brackets, in - preventing sagging cable.

Cord prichalku the lighthouse can be enhanced with the help of the mooring shackles, sharp end is inserted into the joint masonry and to the blunt, the longer end, relying on a brick lighthouse, tied prichalku. The free portion of the cord is wound on the arm of the bracket. Rotate the bracket to the new position are the line tension of the cord-prichalki for the next series. The cord-prichalka not slack between beacons, under cord enclose wooden lighthouse wedge thickness is equal to the height range of masonry and brick placed on top of it, which is pressed against the cord.
Majachnye wedges placed 4-5 m with a projection beyond the vertical plane of the wall in the 3-4 mm.

Cord prichalku can be enhanced as well, tying him for the nails fixed in the masonry joints. After you have installed poryadovki lined beacons and stretched cords prichalki, the process of laying in every workplace is performed in the following order: the bricks are laid on the wall, spread a solution for male mile and placed outside of a mile away. Further process of construction of masonry depends on the manner defined masonry: poryadnogo, step or mixed. In the process of laying should observe the following general requirements and rules. Walls and piers should be performed on a single system ligation joints - single-row or multi-row (chain).
Masonry pillars, piers and narrow (up to 1 m) inside buildings or hidden finish should be applied three-row system tying sutures. Bonder ranks in the masonry shall be laid out as much as bricks. Regardless of the system adopted ligation joints laying bonder series is mandatory in the lower (first) and the top (last) series of constructed structures at the sawed-off walls and pillars in the speakers series masonry (cornices, belt and so on).
Multilayer bandaging joints laying bonder series under the support of beams, girders, slabs, balconies and other prefabricated structures is mandatory. With single-row (chain) ligation bearing joints be prefabricated on Stretcher bond series masonry. The use of brick halves allowed only in masonry zabutovochnyh series and little loaded masonry structures (areas under the windows and walls, etc.). Horizontal and transverse vertical joints of masonry walls, and all the joints (horizontal, vertical transverse and longitudinal) in the dam, piers and columns should be filled with a solution, except for masonry vpustoshovku. Applying trehchetvertki other nepolnomernye bricks to be installed in their chipped side facing brickwork, and the whole outside.
When building with single-row (chain) ligation straight walls with thickness odd polukirpichey such a half, the first - a mile outside of 1st row header brick is laid, and the second - Stretcher bond. When masonry walls with thickness polukirpichey even number, such as two, 1st series begins with laying poking around the width of the wall, in the 2nd row verstovye bricks put spoons, back filling - butting. When masonry walls thicker in verstovye ranks in the 2nd row above poking put spoons and spoons over - butting.
Back filling in all the ranks of butting perform. Vertical restraints (flat trim on the vertical plane of the wall) while laying in single-row system are dressing, putting early trehchetvertki wall. During the construction of the wall in a half-brick at the beginning put in one row halves. Vertical restraints for laying a brick wall in a Stretcher bond series in the beginning it is placed in the longitudinal direction of the two trehchetvertki, and bonder series, as usual - a brick. In bonder series early in the corners of the walls have trehchetvertki in the transverse direction in Stretcher bond - three trehchetvertki in the longitudinal direction of the wall.

Masonry angles
Masonry wall corners - the most important work that needs to perform sufficient experience. First bonder series one of the walls at right angles, starting from the outer surface of the second wall trehchetvertkami, 1st row second wall attached to the 1st series of the first wall. In the 2nd row masonry is in the reverse order, that is, the clutch 2nd line second wall starting from the outer surface of the first wall trehchetvertkami. As a result, Stretcher bond series one wall poking out the front surface of the other wall. Wall, skipped to the front surface of the other walls, must end trehchetvertkami arranged longitudinally. Pass the outer Stretcher bond series, adjacent outdoor bonder. In this scheme, the layout of bricks without spread Thursday of the corners, but with considerably more trehchetvertok.
Abutting walls in single-row system ligation is performed as follows. In the 1st row adjacent masonry wall pass through the main wall to her face and end up poking and trehchetvertkami if compliance trehchetvertki dressings applied and the Quartet, or skip some trehchetvertkami masonry finish. In the 2nd row to the spoon main wall adjoins several adjacent wall. The intersection of the walls in a chain system ligation performed alternately, passing rows of masonry walls of one over another.
Multilayer bandaging 1st row spread in the same way as in the single-row, butting. When the thickness of the wall, fold the whole brick, in the 2nd row outer and inner mile spread spoons and back filling - butting. When the thickness of the walls, an odd number of times the bricks, 1st row spread butting on the façade, and spoons into the room: 2nd row, on the contrary, spoons on the façade, and poke inside. Subsequent 3-b-th rows spread only spoons with ligation of the vertical transverse joints in the half or quarter brick. When lightly loaded masonry walls in areas under the windows filling frame walls may be used in back filling the halves and brick battle.
Vertical restraints are walls, laying out the first two rows using trehchetvertok at the beginning of the 1st and 2nd rows. In other Stretcher bond series nepolnomernye bricks have alternated with integer constraints, bricks are laid so that spoons overlap on a half-brick. Angles spread using trehchetvertok and Thursday. Begin laying the corner from two trehchetvertok, each of which put the spoon in the outdoor mile appropriate mating walls. The gap formed between trehchetvertkami and header brick, fill Quartet. In the 2nd row mile carry spoons, and back filling - butting.
Laying next Stretcher bond series lead with ligation of the vertical joints. Contiguity interior wall to the outside with non-simultaneous construction of both can be accomplished in a single-row or multi-row vertical indent. In these cases, the exterior walls to strengthen masonry lay three steel rod with a diameter of 8 mm, which have not less than 2 m high masonry, as well as the level of each floor. They should be at least 1 m from the corner junction and end anchor. Often masonry exterior walls are made of ceramic bricks thick b5 mm or bricks (stones) of thickness 138 mm and masonry interior walls - a thickening of the brick thickness 88 mm. In this case, the interior walls abutting the outer bandage every three rows of bricks thickness 88 mm. Thin, half-brick and one brick wall after putting in buildings outside the capital. To attach them to the main wall arrange groove, in which the plant thin wall.
There is another way of pairing where the groove is not allowed, and in the main wall joints in the masonry to communicate with adjacent walls lay the bars.

Masonry wall protrusions (pilasters)
This clutch operates on single-row or multi-row system of dressing, if the width of four brick pilasters and more, and with a width of piers to 31/2 brick - on three-row system of dressing like masonry pillars. In this case, for dressing ledge with the main wall, depending on the size of the pilasters use nepolnomernye or whole bricks, using bricks layout techniques recommended for ligation junctions (intersections) of the walls (Fig. 41).


Кладка угла стены в два кирпича при двухрядной перевязке


Fig. 41. Masonry walls in the corner of two bricks with a double row ligation.



Masonry walls with niches

Masonry walls with niches (eg, placement of heating devices) are made using the same systems dressing as for the solid areas. In this niche are building, interrupting the appropriate places inside a mile, and in places the corners niches for their connection to the wall and placed nepolnomernye header brick.

Masonry walls with channels
Masonry walls at the same time have to arrange them in the flues, vents and other channels. They are placed, usually in the inner walls of the building: the walls thickness of 38 cm - in a row, and the walls 64 cm thick - in two rows. Channel cross-section is usually 140 x 140 mm (1/4 x 1/4 brick) and flues large ovens and cookers - 270 x 140 mm (172 x 72 bricks) or 270 x 270 mm (1 x 1 brick). Gas and air ducts in the walls of brick, solid and hollow concrete stones spread of ceramic solid brick masonry with appropriate bandaging channel masonry walls (Fig. 42).

Каналы в стенах толщиной
Fig. 42. Channels in the thick walls: a - 11/2 brick, b - 2 bricks.



The thickness of the walls of the channels must be at least a half-brick, thickness of walls (crosscuts) between them - and no less than a quarter of a brick. Channels make vertical.
Allowed bends channels for less than 1 m and at an angle of 600 to the horizontal. Section of the channel at the disposal site, as measured perpendicular to the axis of the channel must be the same cross-section of vertical channel. Laying inclined sections are made of hewn bricks at a certain angle, the other areas - from whole bricks.
Flue and air ducts spread on the same solutions as the internal walls of the building. In low-rise buildings, chimneys spread on glinopeschanom solution whose composition is determined depending on the fat content of clay. In all places where the wood pieces come close to the flues (chimneys), arrange cutting of non-combustible materials (bricks, asbestos), and increases the thickness of the channel walls. Same butchering done in places where the design close to the vents, passing close to the flue. Cut between the wooden building structures (beams) and flues, that is, the inner surface of the flue should not be less than 38 cm, if the design is not protected from fire, and at least 25 cm, if they are protected.
Lots of brick walls with channels spread, pre-mark them on the wall of a pattern - a board with notches corresponding to the location and size of channels on the wall. The same pattern periodically validates the placement channels. During the construction of the walls in the channel buoys put in inventory in the form of hollow boxes made of boards or other material. The cross section is equal to the size of the displacer channel, and its height is 8.10 rows of masonry.
The use of buoys for proper form channels and prevents them from clogging up, with better fill the seams. When erecting walls buoys rearrange 6-7 of masonry. Joints of the brickwork channels should be well filled with water. As the construction of masonry seam overwritten using the shvabrovku. Do it under the permutation buoys. Wetting the surface of the water channels, pound shvabrovkoy nodules solution and smooth down the seams. As a result, there is less surface roughness of masonry, which may be formed soot. After the end of masonry channel check, passing through them, the ball diameter 80-100 mm, attached to a cord. Place clogging the channel is determined by the length of the cord is dropped into it with the ball.

Masonry walls filling frames
Such walls are spread using the same systems and methods of work dressing as for conventional masonry walls. Fixing masonry to the frame is performed in accordance with the project. Usually it is placed into the joints of masonry reinforcement bars and attach them to the mortgage details of the framework.

Masonry columns under joists
When the device first floor wooden floors between the ground floor and make the underground, to protect the floor from ground moisture. Flooring plank on logs to be placed on brick columns section in one brick. The use of silica brick and cast stone, the strength of which decreases when moisture is not allowed. Columns are set on solid ground or on a concrete foundation. On an artificial soil to put them is impossible, as because of possible precipitation of at least one or two columns and the floor sags to shaky. Columns, built on the ground, should be above ground level underground for 2 rows of masonry.
Prior to the installation location of masonry mark out the bars, and the extreme rows of columns, which are stacked along the walls of logs, set them back to back, and the extreme poles of each row - with a space for a half-brick. Masonry columns perform better with single ligation alone. A man prepares a place lays brick and provides a solution, and the other is laying. The top of the bars must be on the same level, respectively given point. The clutch is a two-meter rack and check the level, which is applied to the post in all directions.

Masonry columns and piers
Multilayered bandaging system when laying poles are prohibited because it does not provide the required strength and solidity of the pillars. Single-row system ligation shift alternating rows of a quarter-brick, which is achieved by laying trehchetvertok for dressing vertical joints in all ranks, is not profitable for masonry columns, since this method of laying have to use a lot of trehchetvertok. This clutch is made of a brick with the addition of a certain number of halves. In this system, exterior masonry allowed coincidence of vertical joints in three rows of masonry on top. Bonder series while putting in 3 Stretcher bond series. For a masonry requires the least amount of nepolnomernogo brick.
For example, when laying pillars section 2 x 2 brick dressing only do whole bricks and masonry pillars with section 11/4 or 2 x 21/4 brick in every 4 rows of masonry is laid only two halves. Piers up to 1 m wide spread on three-row system of dressing, and a width of more than four bricks allowed to spread and multilayered system. When dressing for the formation of three-row in the spaces in the first quarters of the bonder series laid the Quartet, and Stretcher bond series - half. Since the columns and piers are usually loaded with more than other designs, share them vpustoshovku not allowed. Allowed only incomplete filling of vertical joints to a depth of 10 mm from the front surface. Pillars and piers width 21/4 brick and less spread only from select a brick. If adjacent to the posts of thin walls, connect them fired from the post indent or steel rods laid down in the poles.
Schemes masonry columns and piers are in Figures 43-44.



Кладка столбов

Fig. 43. Masonry pillars: a - 2 x 11/2, b - 2 x 2 brick. 1-4 - the sequence of masonry.

Кладка простенков

Fig. 44. Masonry piers - three-row system of dressing: a - section 2 x N-brick, b - 2 x Z1 / 2. 1-4 - the sequence of masonry.

Masonry walls of lightweight construction

In the construction of exterior walls to save weight and reduce brick buildings, along with the laying of lightweight hollow brick and hollow efficient, ceramic, light concrete hollow stones penosilikatnyh stone used lightweight masonry in which the stones replace light concrete, backfill, or air spaces. Applied also laying on a warm solution prepared on porous sand.
Masonry walls of lightweight construction is performed by pointing to the front side. In areas outside parapet walls in areas with crop base to protect them from moisture top 2 rows spread a solid brick wall.

Lightweight concrete brick masonry
This masonry (Fig. 45) consists of two wall thickness of a quarter-brick and lightweight concrete to be placed between them. Wall associated bonder series, calling at three concrete brick and is located in every W or 5 Stretcher bond of masonry.

Облегченная кирпично-бетонная кладка
Fig. 45. Lightweight concrete brick masonry (dimensions in mm): 1 - bonder series 2 - Stretcher bond series, Z - lightweight concrete.

Bonder series (AE) can be placed in the same plane and vrazbezhku staggered, depending on the assumed thickness of the wall, which can be from Z80 to 680 mm. Instead of continuous bonder series connection between the longitudinal walls is allowed to carry out individual bricks stacked in longitudinal walls butting at least every 2 rows in height and not less than every two bricks stacked spoons along the longitudinal walls.
Brick and concrete masonry used in the construction of buildings up to four floors. Lightweight concrete composition is selected depending on the number of storeys of the building, the quality of the type of cement and aggregates. Walls are belts, height is determined by the transverse ligation masonry bonder series. If bonder series have vrazbezhku then spread outside bonder first mile and internal Stretcher bond, then 2 external and 2 internal Stretcher bond series, and then fill the space between the rows lined with concrete. When you have finished laying the concrete in this zone again on the output number N masonry, first the outer Stretcher bond mile, and then the inside, which first put bonder series, and then 2 Stretcher bond. The process is then repeated masonry.

Lightweight masonry kolodtsevaya
Consists of two longitudinal wall thickness of a quarter-brick each, spaced at a distance of 140 mm and a Z40 connected via 650-1200 mm in length side walls as thick as a quarter of a brick. Masonry shear walls tied with longitudinal walls in one row. Wells formed between the longitudinal and transverse walls filled with light Sediment mineral insulating materials (gravel and sand, light rock, clay, slag) and light concrete liner in the form of stones. Backfill placed 110-150 mm thick layers and compacted layer by layer compaction and water with a solution of every 100-500 mm in height.
Brickwork with cladding insulation boards have a thickness 11/4 and 11/2 brick. Wall inside the insulated penosilikatnymi tile and other insulating materials, which establish or close to the tile, or with a space from her Z0 mm, creating an air gap between the brickwork and tiles. Mounting options slab insulation to masonry depend on the material and size of plates. Masonry with widened sutures used in the construction of walls made of light concrete bricks or stones. Broadened the seam is located closer to the outer surface of the wall. It is filled with inorganic insulation materials or a solution (if laying on easy solutions do those made with porous aggregates).
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