Structural elements of the building

The main elements of the building by their functional purpose are divided into three main groups: supporting, protecting and combine both. Supporting elements take on the load on the design of the building, the weather, people. Protecting shared building on separate premises and perform protective functions (heat and sound insulation, weather protection). Elements that connect the bearing and protecting functions must combine these qualities. Almost every building has an underground part, which is located below ground level and above ground. The boundary between them is a sidewalk, or blind area - a narrow strip around the building, covered with stone, concrete or asphalt. She gives a small transverse slope to drain water away from the building. The building consists of the following elements (see Figure 22).



Схема двухэтажного дома



Fig. 22. Scheme of a two-story house: 1 - the base, 2 - floor basement, NE - waterproofing, 4 - the basement walls, 5 - blind area, b - exterior walls, 7 - interior walls, 8 - intermediate floor, 9 - partition, 10 - Steps, 11 - rafters, 12 - roof; 1h - attic floor.

Foundation - is part supporting structure that serves as a "mediator" between the load of the building and the ground. If the soil under the foundation is in an unmodified (natural) state, is called the natural base. If the ground before construction of the foundation has to be strengthened, the base is called artificial. Have impact on the foundations of variable temperature and ground water, so when you apply their construction materials with high strength and resistance to environmental effects.
These include concrete, concrete, rubble stone. Quite common foundations of reinforced concrete slabs and blocks. Foundations for small houses and cottages are divided into tape (they lay along the lines of future walls) and bar (in the form of free-standing columns).
The walls on its location and function are divided into two types. Exterior walls enclose and protect the room from the effects of the environment. Domestic share space with each other. According to the degree attributable to these walls are load bearing, self-supporting and non-bearing. To account for load-bearing walls, not only from their own weight, but the weight of other structures (roofs, floors, etc.).
Called self-supporting walls that transmit foundation loads not only from its own weight, but also on the wind, they do not rely on the floor and other building construction. Walls, protecting the premises of the building from the outer space and transmit its own weight within each floor to the other supporting structures, curtain call.
Overlap - horizontal plane, combining enclosing and supporting functions.
Overlapping separating adjacent vertical space, called the intercommunication, floors above the top floor - attic. Perform overlapping of concrete panels, at least - of the wooden beams, which are mounted parts ceiling (chipboard, plywood, drywall).
Partitions - light wall, resting on the floor and divide the interior space into separate rooms in a single storey. Used for the manufacture of gypsum boards and fibrolitovye, hollow stones, bricks and other materials.
Ladders are designed for communication between floors. They were placed in rooms bearing walls. Of the ladder, ran from one site to another is called a march.
Cornice - upper part of the outer wall that extends beyond its plane. Functionality of the cornice, in addition to its decorative qualities, is to protect the building from the water flowing from the roof. If the building has no cornice along its roof parapet arranged.
The roof has a functional purpose of protecting their buildings from the weather. The roof is located above the attic floor, and can be made of reinforced concrete panels (flat) and other materials (wood or concrete beams, etc.).
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