The simplest design fireplaces

Unlike furnaces, fireplaces are much easier on your device - they do not require a complex configuration of chimneys. This factor is also a disadvantage with respect to their heat - the efficiency of the fire is low (20%), as most of the heated air into the atmosphere, without having to give a warm room. Start building the fire, it must be remembered that its construction is verified by experience and any deviation from the basic parameters, and even more design changes may adversely affect the operation of the fireplace. If, for example, to increase the depth of the fire, the main heat will not get into the room, uletuchivayas vain.
Of great importance is the shape smoke chamber, the bottom of the firebox which protects against cold air flow coming through the pipe. The design includes a fireplace burning wood on flat hearth of the fire, and in a metal basket, or on a grate. In the latter case the space ash is used not only to collect the ashes, but for additional air flow. Sometimes it makes sense to at least partially fed into the firebox air is out of the room and outside. Taking, for example, the air from the basement, you can significantly improve its ventilation. Of course, the design of the fireplace must be provided Zolnikova camera. To improve the efficiency of the fireplace in the unit sometimes have special thermal cameras, in which room air is additionally heated by the hot outer walls of the fire box.
These heat exchangers are often made from pipes and, if necessary, establish in the firebox.
You can build a Wall fireplace grill, which, unlike conventional fireplace firebox and an outdoor grill used for cooking meat, it also provide racks for pots and skewers. This grill is made of concrete or brick. The clutch housing perform brick made of clay (brick red) or grog. The tube is better to put out a slot brick. Not suitable for laying the "hot" part of the fireplace bricks obtained from dismantling the walls, stacked on the mortar. However, for laying the foundations and the upper parts of the stack, you can use it completely.
Before the beginning of masonry should clarify the correct placement of the fireplace. To do this in accordance with the drawing first bricks laid dry first series, then one row of brick chimney. Then lowered from the ceiling pitches to the corners chimney and make sure that the distance between the pipe and the joists and rafters of the pipe and the device is sufficient to fire horizontal cut (the distance should be at least 12 cm). Squareness of corners first row of masonry check promerivaya with a cord distance diagonally between opposite corners. The difference between the lengths must not exceed 5 mm. Bricks-and-match oppress each other with the tying sutures. Stesannye surface should face outward or closed masonry.

The simplest design fireplaces
Described below for the construction the following materials:
- 2 brand 45 x 45 mm (width - 200 mm);
- Area of ​​45 x 45 mm (width - 200 mm);
- M 12 channel (width - 200 mm);
- 10 clips of flat steel (25 x 3 mm, length - 150 mm), steel grill (its area depends on the size of the throat), tin yap (trumpet) fireplace - front smoke chamber about 1500 x 1100 x 5 (dimensions - in Depending on the size of the fireplace), M 14 channel (width - 200 mm).
Of materials needed about 80 kg refractory powder, 15 liters of water glass, 80 pcs. fireclay bricks, sand, lime, cement, stone or brick. Fireclay solution prepared as follows: water glass diluted with water at a ratio of 1: 1 and the solution thus obtained was added fireclay powder until a solution of the appropriate consistency. Design and basic dimensions of the fireplace are shown in Figure 98.
Камин, пристроенный к дымовой трубе

Fig. 98. Fireplace, attached to the chimney: 1 - chimney 2 - knee, NE - chimney, 4 - valve, 5 - smoke chamber, b - the opposite end, 7 - wall, 8 - furnace, 9 - bottom (a), 10 - ash pan, A - width of the furnace, B - rear wall B - height furnace d - depth of the furnace, D - smoke hole (neck), E - chimney.

If it is possible to bring the pipe into an existing fireplace (on the old stove, etc.), construction of the latter is considerably simplified. At a height of 8 m pipe her piercing should be not less than 20 x 20 cm If the height of the tube is less, the inlet should be more. Built fireplace connects with the knee with a pipe. If there are no pipes, it should be built, and then it is better to do during the construction of the fireplace. And in both cases the presence of a separate tube should be a prerequisite of building a fireplace.

The base fire
It is best to build a concrete base. As its size must fit on the plane fire, including the size of the pipe. Crucial in this case the form of soil and its bearing capacity. The thickness of the base is assumed to be 0.8-1.4 m, depending on the size and location of the building in the center or near the boundary wall. The base must be isolated from soil moisture penetration into the body of the fireplace. Now we can start the construction of the fireplace.

Ashpan
Ashpan is a rigid box, greatly facilitates cleaning the fireplace and remove the resulting ash. With a height of about 40 cm is well insulated furnace chamber from the floor and at the same time is used for the flow of air through the grille, which is necessary for better combustion. Prepared on the basis of the width of the fire on both sides need to build a brick wall of a height of about 50 cm thickness of the masonry must be at least 15 cm on the brick stack prepared two steel tee 45 x 45 and 45 x 45 area.
Profile length should be equal to the width of the fire, in addition, adds another 10 cm on both sides of masonry firebox, if we do not want to board acted on the sides. Otherwise profiles to produce a greater length.
Distance between brands depends on fireclay bricks, which are placed between them on fireclay mortar. Thus it turns out the bottom of the firebox to be refractory. In the center of the hole to leave the grid, through which the ash will fall into the ash pan, set the camera to collect ash. Lattice made of sheet steel.
Dimensions of steel sheet must fit fireclay bricks. Placed between sheets of M22 nuts to obtain the necessary gaps. Tightening the nut M20 grille.

Firebox
After the device is supplied embarking masonry firebox. From inside the firebox fireclay brick veneer to its internal space was refractory. Fireclay bricks laid on the fireclay mortar, as mentioned above. The walls of the firebox should be smooth on the inside they are made oblique - for better heat radiation. In the absence of extensive experience in laying bricks can for hedging against falling back wall sloping roof to fix steel braces.
After the masonry will be brought to a certain height, the bricks are laid up steel flanges channel M 12. Profile length should be equal to the width of the firebox, plus 20 cm

Bell (yap)
The side walls of the fire that had been built up to a certain height, and which was placed above channel will support yap, made of sheet steel. Lower dimensions of the front wall of the Haile depend on the width of the fire, and the front wall will be based on a steel channel. The side walls of Haile rely on the side walls of the fire box. The front wall and side walls are faced beveled fireclay brick. Absolute smoothness of the walls is of great importance to improve traction. Also back is coated vertical walls smoke chamber - it is better not to make the metal.

Fireplace damper
On the smoke chamber must install the bolt, which can be used to regulate one smoke a pipe, and reduce the outflow of warm air, closing the valve after the fireplace heated. Made a bolt of steel sheet. In the warmer months, the valve is fully open, you can get a better ventilation. Closed valve prevents contamination of the space fireplace soot in the process of cleaning the chimney. The valve can be closed using the rod that is raised or lowered. Valve installed in such a way that it had access to either side of the fireplace. After installing the valve is fixed and bearing steel channel M 14 (length plus width 20 cm). When pipe laying is completed, it is connected with the chimney and fireplace with a knee. If the masonry chimney is made simultaneously with a fireplace, then to the upper corner of the valve be emulated asbestos cement pipes. The gaps around the valve and other places should be carefully paint over fireclay mortar.

chimney
Free space on the sides of the chamber is coated with bricks until the valve. Above the channel bar starts lining pipe. Recommended for asbestos cement pipes. First, they have completely smooth sides and a round hole, which is crucial for traction. Second, these pipes ensure the tightness and thus protect against fire. Third, asbestos-cement pipe performs the function of the kind of stiffness most chimney, and then install it in a vertical position makes her the clutch as necessary only cladding tube.
As the chimney above the roof is laid out from quality brick, it can only smear (cover up the gap) or plaster. Over the outlet hood make best out of tin, which will prevent the hole from rain and snow. Since the combustion of wood sparks fly, sex front of the fireplace must be made of non-combustible materials (brick, tile, etc.), and before opening the furnace to put protective brush (steel bars, thick metal mesh, etc.) air flow into the firebox can be stopped by closing the shutter of his thick metal (with a minimum thickness of 3 mm) or a cast iron plate and with the appropriate shifter (lever unit) to manage them from the room. Entrance of air into the firebox outside not only reduces heat loss and air circulation in the room. The design and the recommended amount of fire required in the event that, under normal thermal insulation properties of the building's walls fireplace is used as a source of heating. When it comes to the fireplace as a decorative part of the room and if the main source of heat will serve any heating system, the design of the fireplace can be even simpler and smaller sizes.
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