Cellar

Concrete walls cellar
Selected by the grain size gravel or gravel should measure out the desired part, to cast a flower bed on a wooden board with a minimum width of 1 m and mix all to complete homogeneity. Cement and sand mix should be separate, then you need to connect all the parts together, and mix again.
When laying the concrete mass should be carefully sealed with a steel rod with a diameter of about 15 mm. This is necessary to ensure that a poured concrete mass is not formed voids (shell).
In order for laying of concrete formwork did not follow mortar, formwork to hold from edging boards. And to formwork was denser, with 2-W h before placing the concrete should be moistened with water.
Stack layers of concrete mass to a thickness of 200 mm. The laid a lot in a day or two can be covered with a layer of cement mortar 10 mm or more, blade, trowel or spatula or trowel to smooth. After 2 days NW after concrete should pour water at temperatures of 15 ° C. In the early days of curing concrete must add at Z-5 times a day, and after 5 days - 2-W times. As for the casing, then it should be removed after 8 days.

The thickness of the concrete walls of the cellar can be 100 mm or more.

Cellar, made of reinforced concrete rings
This is perhaps the most interesting of all of the design. Zheleznobetonnyh cellar is made of rings. Advantages of the cellar - the ease of fabrication and small material and physical costs. In addition, these cellars are characterized by their minimum size, which makes them particularly suitable for placing on the gardens, and, most importantly, they are very hygienic.
If you are going to build such a cellar, but the place to be building quite a high water table, in which case you should do podsypku soil or sand under the ring to raise for them plan's mark.
Waterproofing of the cellar, as well as most - obmazochnuyu that is done of coated hot bitumen (two times).
As for the dry soil, there will be quite easy to make solid cellar as a short and wide tube with a diameter of about 1.5 m and up to 1.8 m
Let us dwell on the manufacture of concrete rings, which are taken as a basis for the whole structure of the cellar. The first step is to make the casing of sheet iron (Fig. 119).


Скользящая опалубка из листового железа

Fig. 119. Sliding shuttering of sheet iron.



At the end of each semi-circle casing to drill some holes for the bolts and nuts (for contraction semi-circles). Then you need to make concrete, it is done as follows: you need to mix 1 part cement (grade Z00 or 400), 2 parts sand to 1 part gravel.
However, note that the cement should be carefully checked, it should be free of lumps, and the size of pieces of gravel (or crushed stone) should not exceed 1 / W thick solid walls.
Then, when the formwork is assembled, between its walls should be placed reinforcement of thick steel wire and pour concrete. In this case, the concrete must be sealed and stand in the formwork for about a week.

Construction cellar-glacier
First, you must choose a place where you will build a glacier. Note that the right place - a dry, elevated and better with sandy soil, such as soil is easily permeable and dries quickly, and this, in turn, makes the waterproofing and drainage of melt water from the glacier. In any case, the level of ground water should be below the bottom of the cellar for at least 0.5 meters around the perimeter of the glacier should dig drainage ditches to divert melted snow and rainwater.

You also need to collect the water, which is formed by the melting of ice in the icehouse. And it often happens that it is impossible to carry out the diversion of water from ldohranilisha in lower places. In this case, the water can be collected in a tray. The only disadvantage in this case - it is necessary to monitor the accumulation of water in the trays and periodically delete it.
As for the excavation prior to construction, then it is better to carry out manually to get the required size with the pit intact side walls and the base. If the prepared pit falls atmospheric water, then remove it in the bottom of the pit to make a drainage pit.
So, let's move on to the building. The walls of the underground ldohranilisha best built of concrete based on cement grade Z00 or 400. The wall thickness of this should be about 12-15 cm
For the manufacture of concrete walls must be prepared at the rate of 1: 2: 4 (cement, sand and gravel, respectively, in parts by volume). The size of the gravel pieces should not exceed 4-5 cm). Sand and gravel should not be contaminated with clay, otherwise not get a good grip with the cement particles.
So concrete is prepared, and now it is necessary to fill the formwork, and pour as quickly as possible and without interruption. This will prevent the so-called working joints that weaken the structure of the glacier.
It is important to note that the construction of the walls of glaciers (and indeed all the cellars) can not use the concrete with water glass, because in time it (water glass) is washed out of the concrete, leaving pores which will inevitably lead to leakage of the assembly.
The top (surface) of the glacier spread only a red brick wall thickness - half brick. Carried out on the masonry cement-sand mortar in the ratio of 1: N (Fig. 120).


Погреб-ледник с погребицей

Fig. 120. Cellar-glacier from the cellar: 1 - concrete base, 2 - waterproofing, NE - Wall Glacier 4 - blind area, 5 - icehouse b - pan melt water.

After that, the waterproofing of the walls of the underground part of the glacier - and obmazochnuyu okleechnoy. The first layer of asphalt roofing felt bonded to which the top is covered with hot bitumen and sprinkle dry coarse sand.
Waterproofing of the above-ground parts - the usual, either with hot bitumen mastic (bitumen with fillers), or pure bitumen in two layers of 2 mm thick on the surface, pre-primed cold bituminous primer.
As for the extraction of snow and rain, he (outlet) in two ways.
Method one. If ice is built on dense clay soil, the basis should arrange icehouse drainage pit (kolodchik) from which melt water through the drain with water seal gets into the pipe and is discharged in the lower catchment areas or in a well.
Method Two. Drainage pit deepens into the ground to a sufficient depth, and where the melt water flows, that is, is a kind of vertical drainage as well. This drainage is more reliable for removal of melt water, and is also very hygienic.

Concrete work in addressing flooding cellars
Flooding of the cellar is one of the serious problems that may be encountered during operation cellar. Stagnant water accumulated in the pit backfill (Fig. 121), act on the cellar, thus destroying the very design. This occurs in cases where the cellar was built in the dense clay soil.

Схема образования застойной зоны
Fig. 121. Scheme of the stagnant zone: 1 - dead space 2 - soil backfill, NE - sex.

Necessary to take all possible measures to protect, otherwise cellar is flooded constantly atmospheric and melted snow. And it will happen, even in those cases where the cellar was dug in a dry place, with a deep water table.
Stagnant water - the most common cause of dampness in the cellar. She always appears where the layers of soil, well passes (filter) atmospheric and melt water, surrounded by less waterproof layers (clay, loam and marl), which prevent leakage of leachate into the lower seats.
Here are the main steps to eliminate flooding of the cellar:
- To make a drainage ditch for quick removal;
- Cellar to build in a short time and without interruption to avoid moisture and violations of the structure of natural soil in the pit;
- It is necessary to build a circular drainage, for the collection of drainage water and dumping it in the lower places, such as the cell, gullies and ravines. If there is no low places, drainage can be connected to a specially constructed catchment well, dug near the cellar;

- Building a wall and the base should cellar with the expectation of the hydrostatic pressure of the stagnant (embedded) water, using a compact, waterproof concrete. If used normal concrete or red brick, it should be plastered on both sides with cement mortar in the ratio of 1: 2, and must be provided protivonapornuyu waterproofing of 2-W layers roll material with a protective (spring) wall (Fig. 122).

Гидроизоляция подвала (погреба)
Fig. 122. Basement Waterproofing (cellars): 1 - Insulation Roofing installation in the basement floor and 2 - layers of cement plaster and bitumen; W - cement floor, 4 - bottom layer of concrete, 5 - puddle clay.

Please note: If backfill excavation of sand or other filter soil, the construction of drainage is essential, otherwise the pit cellar itself become a kind of drainage pit.
There are times when there are no conditions for the construction of drainage, then you need to provide reliable waterproofing protivonapornuyu okleechnoy as a tray (tray).
If the cellar was built in a well draining undisturbed soils (eg, sand), there is no need to drain.
Furthermore, as an additional protection is recommended to arrange a wide blind area and wide roof overhangs around the cellar itself.
We also want to draw your attention to the fact that the backfill should be done with a fiber compaction at the optimum moisture content of the soil. This will protect the sinus pit cellar himself from rain and atmospheric water. Waterlogging ground is almost impossible to seal the natural state, so backfilling and compacting it in the sinuses should be performed immediately, preventing soil become dry or too wet.
This is perhaps the key and the key measures to be taken when the signs of flooding cellars.
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