Particularly the construction of foundations for different types of buildings

Foundation under the garage
For the construction of the garage, as well as any other structure is required to lay the foundation previously. Since the garage more often built of brick, the foundation is better to make a belt, that is continuous (Fig. 116).

Устройство фундамента гаража

Fig. 116. Foundations Garage: 1 - pin 2 - alignment cord, W - the base (dimensions in cm).

Garage is enough to lay the foundation to a depth Z0 cm wide 40 cm It should be slightly wider than the wall. Digging trenches for foundations, the bottom of which is poured sand layer at least 50 cm Thus, the depth of the trench should be 80 cm
At the bottom of the trench sand poured two layers of 25 cm, each of which is tamped and watered so that the sand is compressed. Cooked on a sandy base laid parallel to each other several rods reinforcement.
They should be laid so that the ends overlap by at least 20 cm, and then bind them together with wire. To prevent corrosion of the reinforcement bars should be placed at a distance of 5 cm from a layer of sand, so they hung before pouring concrete at the correct height, setting the bar at the edges of the trench.
Gulf trench with concrete in the base metal rods inserted into a length of about 40 cm, plunging them half lengths. In the future they will need for a bunch of basement walls garage. Bars set at the corners of buildings and between 1-1.5 meters away from each other.
In hot weather, the surface is covered with frosting concrete roofing or sprinkled with sawdust, moss or grass and moisten with water, so that it dries slowly and do not crack. Generally, garages are built without the cap.
Before laying the foundation, make sure that the surface is level. If she has a bias, it is necessary to carry out planning, that is, remove excess soil from the hills.
The foundation must be protected from water by means of waterproofing. Blind area around the buildings do - a small concreted slope of the wall around the perimeter of the building, which does not allow melting and rain water accumulate near the walls of the garage.

The foundation for the furnace
Today stove though rare, occur. However, put the oven - this is half the battle. The main thing - to know how to lay the foundation. One of the main causes of premature failure of the furnace - unreliable foundation.
In single-story homes furnace put on special foundations. The exception is a small stove or fireplace, weighing up to 750 kg: they can be installed directly on the floor. However, this rule only applies to the stable floor. If the strength of the floor is in doubt, it can be further strengthened beams. Under heavier stove satisfied on solid foundations, which do not produce precipitation load ground.
Since the top layer of soil plant contains many organic contaminants and is not a ground for the foundations, it must be removed. The thickness of this layer can vary from 10 to 50 cm

Foundation for a bath
In old Russian bath put a log on the stones laid on the ground. By the inner and outer corners baths arranged support of the larger stones, and the spaces between them filled with any material - small gravel, small stones and liquid clay. The measure was necessary to protect the floor from blowing. To extend the life of its baths lower crown made of oak. In this case, the room could stand on the ground.
Such a method of setting a small bath is simple and perfect for building on a homogeneous dense or rocky ground. In addition, we require that the soil in the winter freeze and evenly as evenly thawed, and the construction itself was a reliable bath.
Bath to last longer, her suit on the foundation. Construction work starts with plot device, which will be room. Land free of vegetation, remove the top layer and level. Then, according to plan divide the area under the foundation. At the corners of the site at a distance of 1.5 m from the outer loop bath set U-shaped pegs with nailed them on top bars. Then they pull cords, a sign of the foundation. Once again, carefully check the distance between the corners diagonally; angles themselves should be straight.
Opposite walls of baths built with deviation from the parallel position of about 40, which deviates from the one wall are parallel to one side for 20, and the other - the other side is also 20.
Very easy to make a foundation for a uniform, dry and solid ground. In this case the stack postelistye large stones placed on top of antiseptic and missed bitumen bars bath. The stones are placed at all angles baths, as well as in the joints inside walls with exterior (Fig. 117).

Строительство фундамента на сухом, однородном и плотном грунте

Fig. 117. Construction of the base on a dry, uniform, dense soil: a - set castoffs: 1 - plummet, 2 - Front U-shaped, W - power, 4-mold 5 - trench, b - base-lining made of natural stone, 1 - compacted clay, 2 - stone, NW waterproofing and in - a wooden chair on a rock 1 - stone, 2-butt logs, NE - waterproofing, d - a wooden chair with a cross, 1 - Cross 2 - log; W - Waterproofing and e - strip foundation, 1 - waterproofing, 2 - base of rubble on a solution, and h - hard-packed sand, e - strip foundation of rubble concrete, 1 - Crushed stone on the solution, 2-hydro, NE - protivopuchinnaya shell, g - pier foundation Brick, 1 - compacted sand, 2-hydro, NE - brickwork and a half brick.

Quite often, baths were built on the strip foundation of stone, upon which is laid a layer of waterproofing. The gaps between the stones, soil and fill the lower rim of diluted clay, it also filled the trench outside.
The result is an excellent blind area that protects the bath from the weather.
In problematic soils usually build these foundations, but more simplified type.
The problem of soil freezing described above. However, the construction of the foundation for a bath is very different from building a conventional house: bath will burn regularly, and hence the need to build it as an unheated building.
Bath - a light structure, so even if deep-foundation last will be pushed if it will freeze to the ground. To prevent this, the foundation additionally protect protivopuchinistymi boards or shell. This is nothing like the very sandy base, which was discussed above. However, there is a more reliable way - two-layer plastic film printed with a special lubricant between the layers of the BLM-W.
Instead of grease BLM NW often use hot garden var mixed with waste oil or grease.
Foundations for the bath can also be applied and wooden chairs, covered with melted bitumen.
Wooden chair is the butt of a tree with a diameter of 40 cm, Z0, performed on block of wood or a wooden cross. In the vertical position on the supports (for which you can use stone, brick, timber) recorded strong pillar kerchiefs.
Before covering the hot bitumen wooden poles and chairs covered with antiseptic and dry.
When the device foundations of brick, stone or concrete rubble pay special attention to the nature of the solution - as a rule, it must correspond to the nature of the soil. In the water table below the S m, a solution of cement grade 100, lime paste (sometimes replaced with clay) and sand in the ratio of parts 1: 0.5: 5. If the water table is at a depth of 1 to N m, the ratio of parts of the solution must be different - 1: 0, W: W, 5. If the water table is at a depth of less than 1 m for solution taking grade 150 cement and sand in the ratio of part 1: 2.5 without a mixture of clay and lime paste.
For baths usually build a simple strip foundation. First of all, in a prepared trench sprinkle coarse sand, crushed stone or gravel layer of 20 cm, each layer firmly tamped while pouring water, then pour on the ground level all the layers grout and spread base of brick or rubble stone. On top of the foundation is laid two layers of roofing felt or roofing material.
When the device pier foundation at the corners baths and around the joints of internal walls with external poles set in concrete, brick or rubble stone. To save material at half the depth of the trench make a sandy base.
Concrete for the foundation are made directly on the site. It is better to use reinforced concrete, which is placed in the plank formwork, thoroughly compacted and allowed to fully grasp the solution.
As formwork also used other materials, such as pipe, corrugated iron or asbestos cement pipes. In this case, the method of foundations is quite simple. First of all, dig a hole to the desired depth cross-section of at least Z0 cm, inserts a tube in an upright position, unoccupied space of the tube filled with sand or fine gravel (these materials will serve as a kind of lubricant to prevent ejection of the foundation pillars for winter swelling). Then inserted into the tube wired metal rods, pour concrete and well compacted.
For the convenience of one end of the pipe-casing attached two pieces of wire - they will serve as a handle. Grasp them, shuttering is removed by 40 cm, re-sanded the outside and pour a new batch of concrete.
Then spread a brick wall between the posts basement, buried them in the ground at 25 cm, align them with mortar and covered with a layer of waterproofing. Outside arrange clay blind area.
To save building materials instead of brick walls can be constructed bulk, using any materials that resist rot, such as gravel, slate trim, construction waste, slag, dry land, etc.
Dry walls are as follows. Primarily made wooden frames covering projecting ends adjacent poles. Within each frame is placed two sheets of slate, deepening it in the ground. Then the hollow space between the slates fill bulk, be sure to dry the material.
A similar method is also used in the construction of strip foundations. To do this, a trench for the foundation to half its depth, filled with sand or gravel, well tamped and placed on top of the bricks in one row. Bricks set on slate upholstered frame, and in the space between the sheets of slate then pour concrete. For frames used antiseptic and bitumen material.
In the dense soil, if the walls are not the foundation trenches crumble, whole sheets of slate or trim set without frames along the walls of the trench. Space outside, sanded and tamped, the space between the sheets is filled halfway with sand or gravel, stamping thoroughly, then pour the concrete. Once hardened concrete sheets of slate removed and used again. Slate is also used instead of the plank collapsible formwork.
During the construction of baths is recommended columnar (drilling) a base of brick, stone, concrete (or a combination), wooden pillars. The simplest is the foundation of pre-cast concrete columns or cement pipes filled with concrete (Fig. 118).

Буровая свая фундамента
Fig. 118. Drilling pile foundation: 1 - asbestos-cement pipe, 2 - fittings; W - concrete, 4 - boring.

It is particularly well established itself in the construction of chopped, bruschatyh baths and frame, when the distance between the supports does not exceed W m and do not make special bridges between the pillars.
To create a pier foundation, first drill a hole diameter of 24 cm and a depth of 1.5 m
Then inserted into the resulting hole cement pipes 20 cm in diameter to pipe standing vertically on the outside, it is compacted soil. One-third of the pipe is filled with concrete. After that, the pipe must be raised slightly to the concrete mix got out and formed a broadened base of the pile. Then, the pipe must be added to the level of concrete, located at 10-15 cm below its upper end, and insert a rod of iron reinforcing. After 4-5 days in the piles can be installed lower crown of the framework and to start the construction of the walls of the bath.
Used in the construction of the basement cement must conform to the nature of the soil:
- When water table below W m can be used with the addition of cement lime putty and sand in the ratio of 1: 0.5: 5 (lime paste in such a solution can be replaced with clay);
- When water table below 1 m for solution are taken the same components, but in a different ratio of 1: 0, W: W, 5;
- When water table at a depth of less than 1 m for solution of cement grade 150 and sand in the ratio of 1: 2.5.
Between the posts along the contour of the base and steam bath brick wall laid in one or a half-brick, buried in the ground at 25 cm height of the walls and pillars should be above the soil level not less than 20 cm

Fuidameit a cellar
Selecting a location for a future cellar - an event of paramount importance. From that, the soil from which you arrange your cellar will depend, above all, his longevity; safest build cellar on dry (even better - on a high.) This will facilitate the work of waterproofing.
During the construction of the foundation, you must first ensure that the groundwater does not reach the base (bottom) cellar by 0.5 m in the case if the site is low-lying, with the moist ground, then the cellar should be sand-gravel "cushion" to protect it from the effects of ground water.
Determine the level of ground water can be in the spring (this time it is the most high), as well as the fall, during heavy rains, the water level in nearby wells, exploration wells. In addition, in areas where the water flow deep, usually found lush vegetation (mostly marsh and moisture-loving plants: rushes, reeds, forget-me-horse sorrel, coltsfoot, etc.) Also, in places large number of mosquitoes and midges.
There are more reliable and accurate methods for determining the presence of groundwater. Next, we present two such methods.
Method 1. Must take equal parts of sulfur, quicklime (hydrated lime) and copper sulfate (of 800-900 g), all mixed and placed in unglazed pot, which should close the lid (also Unglazed). Then the pot to dig into the ground at a depth of 0.5-0.7 m A day potty should dig out and weighed. If the contents of the weight by more than 10%, it means that the water is shallow. Naturally, the larger the increase in mass, the closer the water.
Method 2. To determine at what depth are ground water, you need to take a piece of wool, which should be free of grease, rinse and dry. Then it must be put on the land cleared of turf, and the top place new-laid egg. Then all that is necessary to cover a frying pan, and all together - turf. If the morning after sunrise, wool and eggs are covered with dew, it means that the water is near. If the egg is dry, and the hair is wet - the water is deep enough. Well, if there was no moisture at all - the water is very deep or not at all.
Selecting a place, you can begin to build the cellar. First of all, we should cut the topsoil, smooth surface and identify the size of the future cellar.
After that you should dig a pit. But it must be borne in mind that in the dry soil pit in size can be almost equal to that of the cellar and all the work should be done only on the inside.
In wet soils also increases the size of the pit, as you have to work from the outside.
Once the pit is prepared, to align its bottom and seal it by heavy tamping. If soil is dry, it is recommended to prepare a fat wrinkled clay, cut it with pieces of 100 mm thickness, put 2-W layer these pieces to the bottom of the pit, press tightly against one another and thoroughly compacted. Size clay structure must be larger than the outer sides of the cellar at 100 mm. This is done in order to protect the walls of the cellar from ground moisture. Since laid clay dries long and not always entirely, on top of it should pour a layer of moist soil (50-70 mm) and compacted it. Instead of soil can be laid concrete layer thickness of 50 mm and carefully smoothed it. Concrete must cover all of the laid clay preparation.
In that case, if the soil moist, then in addition to the above should put 2 layers of roofing felt or roofing, ceiling joints not less than 100 mm, and the top to put a second layer of concrete, which is necessary to sustain the 7 days.
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