Artificial stone materials

These include ceramic and silicate materials and concrete mixtures and concrete.

Ceramic bricks and stones
They are used in exterior and interior masonry walls and other structures, as well as for the manufacture of wall panels and blocks. You can also use these materials when building foundations and plinths.
They are made of fusible clays with or without additives. Bricks are conventional (size in mm: 65 x 120 x 250), thick (80 x 120 x 250) and a module (138 x 138 x 288). Stone thickness equal to the thickness of two bricks (including the mortar joint). Rocks are divided into standard (138 x 120 x 250), consolidated (138 x 250 x 250), modular (138 x 138 x 288) and with horizontal voids (120 x 250 x 250).
The bricks are hollow or full-bodied, rocks - just hollow.
On the strength of bricks and stones are divided into grades - 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 (low strength). They must be properly baked, because unburnt material (scarlet) has insufficient strength, low water and frost, and burned (dark brown) - high density, thermal conductivity, and often has a distorted form (Table 2).

Table 2. Application of ceramic bricks and stones

Применение керамических кирпичей и камней

Cladding (exterior) bricks and stones have the correct form, clear lines and uniform color. Their surface is smooth, ribbed and textured (grain, etc.). Facing bricks and stones are divided into grade strength (75, 100, 125, 150), and produced the following types and sizes: full-bodied and hollow brick usual - 65 x 120 x 250, thickened - 88 x 120 x 250, modular - 63 x 138 x 288; stone hollow normal - 138 x 120 x 250, enlarged - 138 x 250 x 250, modular - 138 x 138 x 288, with horizontal voids - 80 x 200 x 250.

Silicate bricks and stones
Silicate bricks and stones are made of a mixture of lime, water and quartz sand.
Bricks come in single or full-bodied with porous aggregates (65 x 120 x 250), thick hollow or full-bodied with porous aggregates (88 x 120 x 250), hollow (138 x 120 x 250).
On the strength of the silicate materials are divided into grades - 75, 100, 125, 200, 250.

Scope of application of calcium silicate bricks and stones is the same as that of the ceramic, but they are not used for masonry foundations and walls in wet conditions, as well as masonry, exposed to high temperatures (furnace, etc.).
Concrete masonry units also apply to silicate materials. By the size of the stones are divided into integers (188 x 190 x 390), lengthwise (188 x 90 x 390) and partitions (188 x 90 x 590).
According to the purpose concrete stones are divided into the following types: masonry walls and foundations, for partitions.
Separately it is a group of special purpose building - brick clinker, clay brick, acid brick lekalny. For the installation of foundations special durability use acid-proof brick, adapted to protect building structures from the effects of aggressive environment.
Roasted, or construction, brick is of several types:
- Ordinary;
- Face;
- Road;
- Fireproof.
Lightweight hollow, perforated longitudinally and vertically perforated bricks (Fig. 19), characterized by high thermal insulation properties, is used in the construction of light interior walls.


Fig. 19. Bricks (dimensions in mm): a - longitudinally perforated, b - a vertically perforated.

To carry adobe-lime brick, usually a light gray or white. Massive size and hollow silica bricks do not differ on the size of an ordinary brick. In the massive brick can be through-hole (Fig. 20).

Массивный кирпич

Fig. 20. Massive brick (dimensions in mm).

B faces of bricks isolated two large, so-called bed, while laying - upper and lower.
Other big name faces Stretcher bond, and two small - bonder (Fig. 21).

Из б граней кирпича выделяют две большие, так называемые постели, при кладке — верхнюю и нижнюю

Fig. 21. and - sides brick and stone, b - stonework elements: 1 - bed, 2 - stretcher, NE - jab, 4 - outdoor miles, 5 - internal verst, b - back filling, 7 - horizontal seam, 7 - vertical seam, 8 - facade, 9 - bonder series, 10 - Stretcher bond series.

To perform a particular type of dressing in construction often have to share the bricks into pieces that have unique names. For example, the brick, the lower and the upper bed of which are in the shape of the square, called the three-quarters, chopped in half along the length of a brick forms long half. The brick, chipped across his long piece, with a size equal to the height of brick, called the quarter.

Concrete - an artificial stone material obtained as a result of hardening of compacted mixture of binder, water, aggregates, and in some cases - supplements. This mixture can be easily mixing, it quickly thickens and hardens, becoming kamneobraznuyu mass. Concrete can be supplied with steel reinforcements, which allows it to withstand heavy loads.
By type of binder concrete are cement, silicate, gypsum, asphalt concrete, polymer concrete.
Distinguished by the form of aggregates on solid concrete, porous and special binders. As the filler can be used crushed stone, gravel, sand, blast furnace slag, pumice stone, shell, clay and other fillers should be clean, that is, they should not have impurities such as clay, humus.
According to the structure distinguish dense concrete, porous, mesh and coarse-grained texture.
Concrete on the right is one of the leading places among other building materials.
Since it is the basic material for the construction of foundations, then it accordingly is subject to special requirements. For example, the concrete must have the following qualities:
- Strength;
- Density;
- Frost;
- Water resistance;
- Chemical resistance to aggressive environments.
The density of concrete is divided into:
- Very heavy (more than 2500);
- Heavy (2000-2500);
- Normal (1800-2000);
- Light (500-1800);
- Ultra-light (less than 500).
Compressive strength depends on the density of concrete and distributed in proportion to her
- A particularly heavy concrete is brand from 400 to 1000;
- Heavy concrete - M100-Mb00;
- Normal - M50-M400;
- Easy - M25-M200;
- Ultra-light - M4-M100.
Cement concrete in the construction of houses mixed up directly on the construction site or at special concrete plants, where they are delivered to the mixer.

Waterproof concrete
Speaking of concrete, I want to note that it depends on the density of water resistance, and density - of the presence of pores and voids, which are formed as a result of improper selection of raw materials and grain (grain) of aggregate, insufficient compaction of concrete, and especially from an excessive amount of water in the solution (evaporating water leaves pores).
It is very important to waterproof concrete is cement ratio, ie the ratio of the mass of water to the mass of cement.
If the amount of gravel in the concrete does not exceed more than twice the amount of sand, the concrete is dense enough to get legkotrambuemy. In this case, the minimum porosity is achieved by the use of sand, in which the share of grains with sizes 0.25, 1 and Z is 25 mm, and 25 and 50%, respectively.
For the manufacture of water-resistant concrete can take cement grade Z00 or 400 (required freshly). Before the use of cement, it is recommended to sift through a sieve (mesh size - 1 x 1 mm) to remove lumps formed during storage.
Size gravel (ballast) must not exceed the thickness of the concrete walls 1/Z-1/4.
The amount of the fine should be schebenok 2-W half of large particles. The total amount of fine gravel should be at least 20% of the coarse. Fillers are not recommended to choose from porous, and of solid rocks. For example, the preferred rubble granitic rocks than limestone.
When waterproofing of concrete are also important conditions for hardening cement, or hydration. In order to create normal conditions, you should choose the minimum amount of water, which would provide both a normal hardening of the concrete, and good ductility when lying down.
So, for watertight concrete to take the cement, sand and gravel (ballast) in the ratio of 1: 1: 4 or 1: 2: W at water-cement ratio of 0.5-0.7. You can increase the amount of sand and gravel, taking components in the ratio of 1: 2.5: 5.5.
Watertight concrete masonry preferably held at a stretch, which should prepare in advance all the necessary material and formwork. With careful and proper preparation of concrete can be quite dense and waterproof concrete masonry thickness of 10 to 40 cm
To speed up concrete hardening it should cover tightly with plastic wrap. If the strength of the concrete will still low, it is necessary to take the following steps: to reduce the amount of water leaving the volume of cement without change, to reduce the amount of sand and just as increase the amount of rubble.
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