Natural stone materials

These include building materials and products, obtained by mechanical treatment, which resulted in them almost completely retain the properties of the rock from which they were obtained.
Natural stone materials are divided into two groups:
- Gruboobrabotannye stone materials;
- Natural stone materials, past machining.
The materials of the first group include:
- Crushed stone;
- Gravel;
- Pebbles;
- Sand.

Crushed stone
Crushed stone or bottle, a large irregular pieces ranging in size from 150 to 500 cm, weighing 10 to 35 kg. Crushed stone is produced from a variety of blasting rock special strength.
By way of manufacturing three types of rubble: postelisty, ragged and plitnyakovy.
Postelisty quarrystone get vylomkoy of layered rocks, rubble stone plitnyakovy - from sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with shale structure, jagged rubble stone is obtained by blasting.
More convenient for work and postelisty plitnyakovy rubble stone, and with the ragged Bout to work very hard: the stones of irregular shape formed gaps that need filling. For this we have to select stones smaller or split large.
Crushed stone has its "certificate of quality." Good material for construction should be uniform, free of cracks, traces of separation or weathering, free from impurities of clay or other rocks.
The main indicator of the quality of crushed stone is its hardiness, which is very important in the construction of residential buildings. It is believed that frost should ideally be at least 15 cycles, in other words, the material should be ready for operation after 15 cycles of freezing and thawing.
Fragmented into smaller pieces called rubble stone rubble, which is filled by a concrete foundation.
There are a mixture of coarse and melkooblomochnyh rocks. However, pure gravel rocks never occurs. Most often occurs with gravel and sand, forming a mass of sand and gravel. In the future, these masses are sorted and are also used in the construction.

Gravel
This stone material formed by the weathering of rocks. Depending on the source, he is ravine, or mountain, river and sea. This material in any case contains uncontaminated sand, dust, clay, mica. Gravel used in concrete shall be free of them. Considered to be the best river and sea: they do not contain impurities, they have a smooth surface. A rough surface by a mountain gravel that provides a better grip in the manufacture of cement concrete.

Macadam
Crushed stone is a mixture of angular rock fragments ranging in size from 15 to 150 mm in different shapes. Rubble is produced by crushing rocks - such as granite or diabase - as well as some other dense and water-resistant sedimentary rocks. For the construction of rubble take hardwood with sufficient strength and frost resistance.
The form of the material most often resembles the shape of a cube or a tetrahedron. This is the most suitable gravel for construction. There are also flat gravel, called flakiness form unsuitable for construction because of the great fragility.

Sand
Sand refers to natural building materials. It can be lake, river, mountain and gullies. According to the grain size of the sand can be fine-grained, medium-grained and coarse-grained. In addition, the sand is divided into heavy (normal) and light (obtained by careful crushing pumice and ash).
Only suitable for the construction of clean, washed sand. The content of various impurities in it should not be more than 5%. Sand is used as a filler in the manufacture of concrete and mortar, with some equipment foundations and basements, floating floors.
The natural stone materials, past machining, are building blocks and stones.

Blocks
The blocks of stone are two ways of pre-selected mountain. In the first case are massive pieces of stone of irregular shape, which are squared by bit, resulting in a block of stone the correct form.
In the second case, blasting way large chunks of stone chips, which are then also hews, giving them a regular geometric shape.
The stone blocks used for the construction of foundations and masonry walls. This is very advantageous, as each unit replaces about 10-12 bricks. However, blocks of stone, there are drawbacks. First of all, they include the difficulty of transportation to the site, one block can weigh from 100 to 500 kg. In that case, if you need extra strength and atmospheric stability, favored by large stone blocks.
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