From the history of the invention of concrete

The word "concrete" of French origin, it was first consumed in HUIII century France. Prior to that, the water-cement was named differently. Cast stone masonry with a filler called the Greek word "emplekton." The ancient Romans called concrete "gpspsh." In designating such thing as a solution for foundations and walls, was used the phrase "orpsh saepeeppp." It was under this name and became known Roman concrete.
The first concrete discovered by archaeologists, refers to 5600 BC. e. He was found in the village of Bir Lapinski in the former Yugoslavia, in one of the huts of the ancient settlement of the Stone Age, where it was placed floor 25 cm thick concrete solution for this sex prepared using local gravel and reddish lime.
In Egypt, the tomb was found Teve concrete, dating from 950 BC. e. In addition, the concrete used in the construction of the pyramids and the Egyptian galleries monolithic arch pyramid Nimes.
In ancient Rome, the concrete was used as a building material in about IV. BC. e. The material is called "Roman concrete" and was used for approximately 7. Since centuries have passed, but the structures built of Roman concrete, have survived to the present day. Some of them, like the Roman Pantheon, experienced some pretty major earthquakes.
Foundation works in ancient Rome greatly facilitated by the fact that the volcanic soil in the surrounding area for a long time remained solid, it can be used for the construction of foundations most ordinary plank formwork.

Studies of ancient settlements have shown that the construction used two types of concrete - synthetic and natural. Made of natural stone, formed of clastic particles of rock and interconnected by various minerals, such as lime, gypsum and calcite. To natural concrete include breccia, conglomerate and sandstone. When man invented the artificial concrete, the same stones became associated with each other materials - plaster, clay.

The simplest type of concrete - glinobeton consisting of solid kamnevidnogo material from a mixture of clay and sand and straw. It acquires sufficient strength after drying in the sun.
Gypsum concrete called concrete made from gypsum binders obtained on the basis of semi-aquatic or anhydrous calcium sulfate.
Artificial concrete in antiquity did not widely used, because it does not have sufficient strength of clay, lime and plaster soak under water, and the structure was destroyed. That is why the ancient builders prefer to use natural materials. But attempts to create an artificial binder continued.
The ancient Romans noticed that lime, mixed with so-called pozzolanic (the name comes from the area near Naples Putstsiuoli) additions, however, are even more hardness from water. This type of limestone called hydraulic.
O. Shuatre known architectural historian, was able to reconstruct the process of laying the stone concrete. For solution of lime mixed with pozzolanic additives. Then between the two cladding walls stacked thick layer of mortar on top laid crushed gravel with a grain size of up to 8 cm in the next stage solution to ram until he fills all gaps between the gravel.
Opening Romans properties pozzolanic additives improved the quality of Roman concrete, which could not contribute to its further spread. In the II. n. e. Romans developed and began to use new types of binders, such romantsement, allowed more to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of concrete structures under construction.
After the fall of Rome, many of the secrets of the ancient architects were lost. Centuries later, the English architect John Smith drew attention to the fact that the action of lime water mixed with clay hardens. He added to this composition sand and stone and slag was pretty solid substance that was used in building the foundation for Eddistonsky lighthouse. Just long been known to man and the properties of binders - clay and fat land which gained relative strength after mixing with water. However, sufficient strength, they were not given. That's why in China, India and Egypt for about a thousand years NW BC. e. by heat treatment of the raw materials were developed artificial binders - gypsum and lime.
In the 60 years of the nineteenth century. French gardener Joseph Monier invented the world's most durable tubs for trees of concrete. He just rolled metal mesh and filled it concrete. At the time, Monier had no idea that in the near future, his invention will become the main material for the construction of many buildings, especially tall.
Centuries passed, concrete was used in the other, it would seem far removed from the construction industry - such as shipbuilding (in the first half of the twentieth century. Was built many river and sea vessels with the use of reinforced concrete), aviation (manufacture of aircraft wings and fuselages ), rail transport (railway wagons and tank frame). The Americans went even further: they proposed to build on the moon concrete plant with specialized storage system. This was supposed to deliver concrete from the ground and other necessary construction materials, and the very delivery performed using specialized transport ships.
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