Clay locks

Clay layer - a layer of mint and carefully compacted clay around the foundation walls and cellars and basements. Clay locks virtually waterproof, and due to this quality, they greatly increase the durability of waterproof roll material, protecting them from direct contact with groundwater.
When the device uses the properties of clay castles of clay soils to absorb and retain water, which then increases in volume of 2 N times. For clay castles best plastic loam, with not more than 5-15% of sand. If there is no fat clay, using any, including loam. Besides the usual clay, often found sealed, called marl.
In order to improve the plastic properties of clay, it should be soaked and let stand, without allowing it dry out. The plasticity of clay increases dramatically if it lay in the fall and leave the rest for the winter in the open, so that it is a good time vymorozilas and soaked. The quality of the clay can be significantly improved if it add up to 20% (by volume) of lime.
Clay locks easy to do in formwork layers 20-30 cm thick with a fiber binding compaction and compaction. Clay should not take too Waterlogging, but not over-dried. Best used with a wet clay, in which she, in a fist forms a ball and is not falling apart. Clay layer also spread wet layers. As for the clay lubricant, it is used for sealing and insulation slabs cellars. For preparation you can use any kind of local clay. 2 days before the application of the clay should be soaked.
To prepare 1 m clay lubricant to 0.7 m clay dough, 0.28 m of lime paste, P2 kg fibrous matter (straw cutting, chaff), and 200 liters of water. In the water, you can add 1% copper sulfate (100 g in a bucket of water). Ingredients must be mixed thoroughly. Grease ready.
In order to ensure a good seal the well, you must also make a round log clay layer - filled with well compacted loam space between the walls of a log house and mine. It can be made along the entire length of the framework of 15-20 cm, and it is possible - just around the upper part (to a height of 2-2.5 m). In this case, the thickness of the castle will be more - s0-50 cm
Area around the upper rim of the underground part of the framework is covered with logs, to which long nails nailed decking planks. Flooring must extend beyond the edge of the mine-strewn. After you have prepared the land part of the framework, flooring covered with soil, so that at a distance of 2 m was formed bias in the opposite direction from the well. Compacted soil on the surface evenly laid loam, which is covered with concrete slabs, stone, flagstone, or other hard material.



Construction of a brick pit
Before you begin the excavation, you should prepare a few frames with a diameter equal to the diameter of the future well (1 m or more).
The lower (main) frame - the strongest, it is made of reinforced concrete. Frame thickness - 9-10 cm, width equal to the thickness of masonry, and its outer diameter of 5.5 cm-b larger than the outer diameter of the intermediate frames. Bottom around the outer edge of the frame has a steel blade. Intermediate and upper frame made of wooden planks held together with nails, the ends of which it is necessary to bend.
The thickness of the frame - no more than 8 cm and the width is equal to or slightly less than the thickness of masonry. In the frames at equal distances from each other with holes for anchors: the lower and the upper-to b, the intermediate - to 12. The holes should be located strictly below each other.
In the bottom frame is inserted b anchors and tightly secured with nuts and washers. The finished frame with anchors dropped into a pit and check the level of horizontal installation. At the bottom frame to put an intermediate advance Screw nuts and washers and fix it.
For the strength of the resulting structure is strengthened above logs.
Conventional masonry perform in one or one and a half brick bonder series or alternating with Stretcher bond. But regardless of the form of laying the first two series should be bonder. To ensure proper circular should prepare a template to form a ring of two halves held together with a few wedges.
Initially, the main frame is superimposed cement 1-1.5 cm thick, then he leveled on him and put the first row of bricks, then the second and so on round the outside of the masonry between the bricks is a gap to be filled pieces of brick mixed with water.
In the process of laying bricks to make a hole or recess for anchors.
Gaps in them are sealed with a solution. To masonry was more solid, every fourth row along its length must impose double fine wire. Short of 5-b cm to intermediate frame, masonry suspended and secured to the frame anchor. Then the space between the top row of the masonry and the intermediate frame is filled with mortar, mixed with gravel or crushed stone in the ratio 1: Z.
The solution is compacted with a wooden board with a thickness equal to the distance between the bricks and the frame. If water enters the well through the walls, starting from the first row of masonry, they leave no room for windows 25 x 50 cm, which will be installed filters of porous concrete.
Headroom is also well round and can consist of multiple grips. On the top row of bricks applied reinforcement of steel wire, which is filled with cement mortar (20-25 cm).
After the end of the first masonry zahvatki - the distance between the frame - walls of the well from the outside and from the inside to plaster. To assist this process applied lighthouses - b smooth flat strips with a length equal to the length of one grip. They are installed at fixing anchors at equal distance from each other. Between beacons attached bevel - a wooden semi-circle with a radius equal to half the internal diameter of the well.
Moving on lighthouses up and down, bevel aligns slurry deposited on the wall. Plastered the front page, beacons should be removed, seal the gap solution, flatten and smooth with a trowel.
In order to not clog up the bottom of the pit falling solution, it is necessary to close the boards.
Plastering carried out in two stages: first layer of a liquid solution (spray), which perfectly fills all the cracks in the masonry, and then a layer of thick mud (soil).
In order to strengthen the bottom of the well plastered brick wall between the main and intermediate frames can sheathing boards of thickness 25-Z0 see
After plastering the first zahvatki continue sampling soil to a depth of 1-1.5 m and continue laying. To fix the well at the right depth, under the knives of the main frame enclose large stones flagstone or concrete slabs. They should extend at least 0.5 m beyond the well.
Bottom of the well is cleaned and filled with sand, gravel or crushed stone.

Stone well
Masonry is done exactly the same way as a brick, with the only difference being that the bricks have the right shape, and stones do not. Therefore, natural stones, limestone, previously prepared, giving them close to the right shape and the right size. It is desirable that the weight of stones less than 1 kg.
Masonry each series is recommended to perform the dry (without mortar), picking up stones of the same size, and only then with a solution, using steel bars. The joints between the stones should be carefully sealed.
If the outer side of the well will be uneven when lowering the barrel protruding stones may well catch on the ground and destroy the clutch.
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