Safety regulations

As you know, in danger of man everywhere and anywhere need to be careful and follow certain safety rules. This also applies to the construction work. Modern methods of construction require special knowledge of safe work methods.

Safety rules for the production of stone works

Occupational injuries in the stone work can be caused by the following:
- The collapse of walls at irregular masonry;
- The weakening of cementing solutions;
- Bricks fall from the height of being in the danger zone of workers;
- Overload scaffolding in building materials;
- People falling from a height in the absence of special protective devices.
The causes of injuries are sometimes the wrong organization works and imperfect technology.
Some building materials and solutions - such as, for example, lime or cement, harmful effects on the respiratory system and the human skin, sometimes causing burns. This can happen when unloading lime manually without the necessary protective equipment.
In the carriage of dry material, wear a dust mask and goggles closed.
In the preparation of lime paste admit the following, a very common mistake for divorce in specially dug pit, no fenced and covered with a lid on top. Forbidden to unload the dough out of the trough hands.
During repair or replacement of foundations eyeliner produce without significant disruptions to individual non-contiguous areas of no more than 1 m
Walls previously strengthen, in the case of cracking on them put beacons, for which are under constant surveillance.
In the windows and doorways of the first floor to establish temporary fixing bridges, and in the trench around the house - a temporary tight gripping the rest of the foundation.
The work site on the base supply cable shield not less than 1.4 m from the wall.
At the construction site have to be a kit for first aid. It includes bandages, sterile cotton wool, plaster, rubber band, iodine, solution of brilliant green, ammonia, anti-burn.
Follow proper safety precautions when working with tools. Hand tools must not be put into the pockets or belt, as it can lead to accidents. Work, such as a chisel, to send him away. Failure to do so can result in serious injury, chest or abdomen. Cutting tools also should be directed away from yourself.
Electric tools must be insulated on the handles. Such instruments are connected to the network through secure plug. During operation, wear insulating gloves.
Pneumatic tools should work only with the solid surface. It is unacceptable to use ladders.
With a variety of construction and repair work often use stage. This is a temporary device, mounted on the ceiling and let you perform within the height of masonry floor. They are divided into N types:
1. Wooden, higher than W, 5 m, are produced with a mandatory tie-structural elements and enclosing a height of 1 m with three or four sides. The width of the scaffolding of wood flooring is determined by calculating: work zone - 60-70 cm, the gap between the flooring and the wall - 5 cm, where stacked materials - 100-160 cm gaps between the floor boards or boards should not exceed 5 mm.
2. Metal, adjustable in height.
Z. Mechanized, in the form of towers and sites.

Scaffolding may be assembled or block. Their width for masonry shall be not less than 2 m
Masonry up to 1.2 meters is recommended to ground or floor. To continue laying at high altitude use scaffolding mounted on ceilings house. If the height of masonry is more than 9 meters, used wood, mounted on the ground.
The development and operation of the auxiliary equipment of wood (scaffolding, ladders, stairs, floors) should also remember a few rules. Ladders and scaffolding, even a small height shall be provided with handrails, and the edges nail curbs. When bonding between parts of the structure is to be done in these cuts, so much strength is achieved. Scaffolding and decking, located at a high altitude, require special attention when building and strengthening. In the central nodes of such structures is not recommended to use nails, and long screws. Stairs and ladders do not load construction material.
At a height of 1.3 m scaffolding arrange fence height 1.1 meters, which shall comprise a handrail, side boards 15 cm high and intermediate board.
Curbs placed on the edge of the deck. All the elements are attached to the studs on the inside.
If necessary, set on the floor of the scaffold understory height of 50-60 cm and a width of 70 - 100 cm

Compliance with safety regulations in the construction of foundations
Prior to and during the construction of foundations to periodic review anchorage strength of the walls of trenches and pits. In order to avoid the collapse of loose soil at excavation construction materials should be placed beyond the possible collapse of the plot of ground.
Building materials - stones, bricks, mortar - served in a trench along the troughs, in the absence of people. Material must not be discharged into the trench and upset with the wheelbarrow.
As the construction of the foundation wall mount clean trenches and pits, the lower strut is removed only after the removal of the top.
In order to avoid collapses, remove one, maximum two boards simultaneously.
In the pits or trenches should go down a ladder or stairs with handrails. In winter, the rails clear of ice.

Safety in the oven works
When the furnace work required to follow certain rules, taking precautions. Most errors occur in the early stages, when cutting and stesyvanii brick. In the preparation and layout of bricks or building blocks to both equally vigilant of the quality of the work itself, and the serviceability and the degree of sharpening tools and ancillary equipment.
Often in the mortar is a set of elements, which can then damage the masonry (stones, nails, broken glass, etc.), so before starting the solution to thoroughly drain. Struts to strengthen the walls of the foundation should be well secured, to have sufficient length and a good entry between the side walls.
It is also very dangerous process of lime. The developer should wear dust masks, which can be replaced by a bandage covering the mouth and nose. Work clothes should be securely close all parts of the body to avoid burns boiling lime. Should not forget the gloves and safety glasses. Pit to store lime putty should be fenced, have a robust and durable deck hatch.
Masonry stove top elements must be conducted with reliable scaffolding. Adding to the decking material should be evenly distribute them throughout the area, leaving the region with at least 30 cm of empty space. The width of the deck should be at least 1 m Decks, located at a height of 1 m above the ground or floor shall be equipped with handrails having a minimum height of 1 m, consisting of a horizontal rail and bead board width of 15-20 cm, which is attached at the bottom of edge. Do not install flooring on stools, wooden chocks or the bars stacked dry bricks.
If the storage material is assumed in the attic or on the roof, you must first ensure that the strength of rafters and beams. Overloading of these structures threatens severe damage.

In the absence of a building attic floor masonry chimney can lead to the decking boards with a minimum thickness of 40-50 mm, which is placed on the beams, reinforce and complement the railing. The width of the deck should be at least 0.7-0.8 m If the attic floor is not finished yet, you should put the moves between the beams of the boards of 50 mm thickness. In this case, the board should be fixed on both sides, the width of the course - at least 50-70 cm, throughout the course should be provided with handrails on both sides. On the roof, a little below the pipe, install a horizontal platform on brackets, fixed to the rafters with a fence on the side slopes.
Pledge of good masonry - the correct lighting of the workplace. Electric lighting should be tightened a metal mesh, and wiring is made of insulated wire on the rollers, not the nails.
When separating the oven to ensure that the falling bricks do not damage electrical wiring. At the time these works it is better to disable all. When disassembling the chimneys need to fence at the bottom of the ramp area at least 10 m away from the wall, as the Rolling bricks are strong enough to scatter.
When disassembling the main body of the oven to ensure that the walls are not crumbling chunks, especially if the thickness of half or a quarter of a brick. Before dismantling the clutch is necessary to moisten with water to prevent dust from entering the respiratory tract.
Equipment for cleaning furnace flues must be roadworthy and staffing that is checked before going on the roof. The standard package includes a weight with rope brush for sweeping soot trubochistnaya spoon, baking hammer, chisels of various lengths, trowel for furnace work, safety belt with a rope, and in addition, first-aid kit.
Form is a full suit of velvet, safety glasses, gloves, hat, and usually takes a thin cap. Soles of shoes or boots should be just sweep rubber.
When working on the roof rope safety belt must be attached to the solid elements of the building or a special metal bracket. When you walk on the roof to look out and sliding failure of the roof. If the attic is not rolled forward, moving on it is prohibited. In such cases, in all areas of traffic stacked boards that increase the area of ​​support and prevent failures.
When pulling the weight of the pipe is prohibited jibe rope through passing near the wire, it hangs down from the edge of the roof. Rope as drawing near to put rings or in batches. Prohibited from throwing a rope from the roof with the clean weight.
Do not perform the clean work in attics with no light or open fire. In the first case, you should use an electric or battery flashlight. After the work is completed the entire instrument is checked for. Left extracted from flue channels in the shortest possible time. After all instruments are cleaned and placed on permanent storage.

Fire safety
During construction it is necessary to comply with fire safety regulations. Especially to consider the risk of fire on construction sites for work associated with the use of an open flame.
To avoid a fire suit fire barriers - Firewall walls with a fire resistance of at least 4 hours Firewalls built on a separate foundation, they should be parallel with the building structural elements of the building, overlooking the roofs of at least 0.6 m Special attention should be paid to fire regulations safety during construction baths.
To use bath gives you only a pleasure, but does not appear in the source of a lot of trouble in the process of its operation to comply with the measures of fire safety.
Wood and other inflammable part baths must be isolated or located a considerable distance from the hot parts of the stove and the chimney. As an insulator to use fireproof materials or materials with low thermal conductivity.
If the furnace-heater with a thick spread on combustible bases, the distance from the floor to the bottom of the ash must be at least 14 cm, and the bottom dymooborotov - 21 cm In the same furnace at the bottom of a fireproof base and ash all dymooboroty may be at floor.
Frame walled stove must be separated from the wooden floor asbestos board thickness of 12 mm and packed on top of it with steel roofing. Metal furnace mounted on a base consisting of two rows of bricks lying on a double layer of felt impregnated with clay mortar. On the floor of the furnace door nailed metal sheet to protect the floor from dropped from the furnace coal. Between the stove and a wooden wall or partition must be a clearance of 13 cm, and between the nearest dymooborotom and the wall - 25 cm clearance between the stove and the wall of brick.
Combustible wall around the fire door must plaster or upholster roofing steel, which is enclosed by the felt soaked clay mortar. Distance from the fire door to the opposite wall must be at least 1.5 m distance from combustible ceiling to the upper part of the furnace heat capacity should be 35 cm for furnaces with a mass of 750 kg and 45 cm for furnaces with a mass less than 750 kg. The same distance to neteploemkoy furnace should be 1 m chimney and smoke channels must be separated from the rafters, purlins, metal and concrete beams is not less than 13 cm, and from wooden beams - 25 cm
The roof at points of contact with the chimney is covered with iron or steel roofing.
Promptly to plug cracks in the furnace and the chimney and flue cleaned canals from accumulated soot in them.

Compliance with safety regulations in construction and repair works

Overhaul foundation is a more complicated process than the construction of the new.
The foundation of the old house, often dilapidated, is a threat to nearby homes. Repairing a foundation account in the cramped conditions of the other inhabited houses, in close proximity to people and vehicles. In this construction site is most often the territory of the yard, always crowded with construction materials and also used for the passage of the residents of the neighboring house.
Safety regulations stipulated the construction of high, not less than 2 meters, solid fencing around the entire construction site. Heavy construction details and design of the fence lean prohibited. On the yard area and the sidewalk in order to avoid dropping any items to do indoor galleries.

Compliance with safety regulations in construction and repair work in the winter
Maintenance and construction work in the winter is more dangerous compared with those in the summer.
Travel paths, walkways, paths, located at the construction site, you should regularly clean up the snow and sand or ash.
In winter, the excavation within the depth of frost penetration (except dry sand) allowed without attachment. With further deepening in the unfrozen ground set attachment. The state of the fixed part should be set under constant surveillance.
Dry sandy soils, regardless of freezing developed with vertical walls with installation Mount or slopes. Development of pits and trenches in the way of natural soil freezing is allowed without the device mounts to a height of 3.5 m in dry sandy soil application of this method is not allowed.
In the development of the frozen soil requires prior loosening the top layer of a wedge, hammers and other devices, as well as heating of the soil in various ways: floor furnaces, steam needles, metal box with a burner.
In calculating the strength of formwork should consider the additional load of insulation, equipment, etc. should be kept in mind that frozen raw wood than dry has increased strength under static load and low dynamic loading conditions. Pay particular attention to the strength of masonry in the winter, its draft, stability and deformation.
Storage areas of building materials and products should be regularly cleaned of snow and ice.

Compliance with the rules elektrobezopacnocti repair Construction works
Various equipment used in construction and repair work, requires strict compliance with safety regulations. Failure to do so results in an electrical shock, fire, short-circuit.
There are three types of possible electric shock to persons:
- Unipolar, if you accidentally touch the hands, head, or part of the body to any live parts. Trauma from a unipolar lesions represent 85% of total electric shock;
- Bipolar, with a random person to touch two wires;
- Step voltage appears at the approach of man to the fallen to the ground broken wire under tension, or when approaching the place laid in the ground with a broken electrical cable insulation.
When hit by an electric current is not always possible to get rid of him. Quite often it leads to death. Know that many of these injuries results in death of the affected only because nearby people did not know how first aid a person who is under stress, or do not know how to do CPR. We must remember also that the inept and incorrect techniques first aid can only worsen the condition of the victim.
Methods used to interrupt a closed electrical circuit. They are:
- A method of passive action, or fall;
- The method of active action, or hangs on a wire.
In the first case, the victim falls and breaks their own body weight, or a wire breaks away from him. Passive fall is inevitable when unconscious victims. This method is suitable for both unipolar and bipolar for inclusion in the network.
In the second case the victim must bend his legs or knock the legs out from under the stairs, and then hang on the line. After contact with a voltage step from this area can get very small steps, or, on the contrary, broad jumps on two feet drawn together.
Help the victim is:
1. Main switch off, taking out the plug from the socket.
2. If the clothes on the affected wet, it should throw a dry, not conductive objects (rubber hose, rope, scarf).
Z. Without touching the hair and body of the victim, should pull him aside.
4. A man can alienate wire hand wrapped in a dry cloth, or other insulating material. This method is applicable in the event that on the affected wet clothing.
5. In the absence of any circuit breaker, or switch off the device and can not use other methods of release should quickly cut the wire tool with a dry insulated handle. During pererubaniya should turn away, because a short-circuit current of molten spatter from the wires and cutting tools can be caught in the face, and the flash - to cause temporary blindness.
b. From the hands of the victim wire knock dry rack, board or other non-conductive objects.
7. In order to save the victim's chance of a way out: the bare wires can throw the other bare, pre-earthed. Current, thus, are allotted to the land and the voltage drops to a safe value, so that the victim will be able to pry the fingers and release the wire.
8. When electric shock to persons, loss of consciousness, the victim should immediately begin CPR using either one of the following ways:
- Mouth-to-mouth;
- From the mouth to the nose;
- The way Schiffer Sylvester.
Artificial respiration do not stop until the victim has not regained consciousness.
The victim should be given the opportunity to oxygen bag and do CPR.
After he regained consciousness, you should immediately call a doctor.
To avoid injury in construction and repair work, be sure to ground the metal casing of electrical tools and equipment.
Spike is not allowed ground loop with a grounding in plants, in these cases should be applied electric welding. Minimum cross-section of wires of different materials as follows:
- Copper - 4 mm
- Aluminum b mm;
- Steel 24 mm.
Artificial earthing is carried out in the form of metal pipes, hammers into the ground and connected with the band, or in the form of metal strips, laid underground at a depth of 80 cm
Insulation of electrical wires and electrical fittings must be in good condition, this ensures the safety of people.
Portable electric lighting outdoors perform live to 15, indoors at packing basement walls - to 40. The bulb should be placed in a protective grid with a light reflector and heated in sealed cartridge holder with a handle and a hook. The wires must have a low-voltage lamp plug.
To ensure the safety of people is important for proper execution of electrical installation.

Safety rules for loading and unloading
To move heavy (construction materials) are allowed workers when they reach 18 years.
Marginal rate of portering hand on a flat surface as follows:
- For girls 18-20 years old - no more than 10 kg;
- For boys 18-20 years old - 10 kg;
- For women 20 years and older - not more than 15 kg;
- For men older than 20 years - 40-50 kg;
- For two men, one carrying the load - no more than S0 kg for two.
Loading and unloading is most conveniently perform mechanized: wheelbarrows and carts. Handles trolleys should be provided with safety straps to protect your hands from injuries. Device for loading machine drums shall be equipped rotary catches to prevent rolling back the goods. Working with the need to stand on the sides of the cargo.
Handling associated with materials such as cement, gypsum, chalk, should be mechanized. When loading or unloading should be in overalls, a dust mask and goggles closed.

Safety rules for welding
When the device and concrete block foundation of welding work. Failure to comply with safety rules leads to thermal burns, poisoning, explosion of gas cylinders, acetylene generators and other welders must be no closer than 10 m from the gas cylinders and the same distance from the gas generator.
Gas cylinders are legally an identification color:
- Oxygen cylinders are painted blue;
- Acetylene - white;
- Propane and butane - in red.
Gas cylinders should be placed upright and prevent them from falling. Hose length should not exceed Z0 m Gas cylinders are moved to the construction site on trucks or transferred to a special stretcher with curved handles. Gas cylinder valves to prevent contamination should be closed caps with holes in case of leakage. Need to ensure that these holes are not clogged with dirt.
Cylinders should be stored in a separate, lockable room in an upright position in the nests of special racks. Empty cylinders are stored separately.
With improper use gas cylinders may explode, resulting in casualties.
The main reason for the explosion of gas cylinders:
- Mechanical damage to the cylinders because of their fall;

- Getting them fallen from the height of solid objects;
- Strong heating cylinders sunlight or heating devices;
- A sharp opening the valve;
- Sparking electrical bare wire;
- Penetration of oil on the cylinder valve.
Under abusive conditions are dangerous acetylene gas generators, portable type. They lay the pieces of calcium carbide, connecting to the water. In the decomposition of acetylene gas carbide is formed.
When working with acetylene gas generators are prohibited:
- To work on a gas generator, two or more burners;
- The bell lay on extra weight;
- Establish gasifiers congregate;
- Establish gazoneneratory places descent of debris, under the lifted load, etc.
Should be equipped with a gas generator for a separate, well winterized kennel portable type with natural ventilation.
Gas cylinders and acetylene generators can not be left unattended. Frozen generators and cylinder valves warmed only by steam or hot water. The water level in the fermentation lock acetylene generator should be checked periodically. If gazonerator will run out of water, in the event of a flashback inevitable explosion.
It is forbidden to charge gazoneretor powdered calcium carbide instead of lump, since such a process is accompanied by a chemical reaction, the accumulation of heat and spontaneous combustion of acetylene. In the gasifier unacceptable solder from copper. She is able to chemically react with acetylene to form explosive compounds.
For storage of calcium carbide requires a separate, well-ventilated area. Heating of it is prohibited.
Instead of acetylene gas or acetylene cylinders are sometimes used benzokerosinoreznoe system consisting of a tank with a pump and pressure gauge. Liquid fuels, such as gasoline, kerosene, and mixtures thereof, indoor use is prohibited.
When the gas welding works from the stage, wooden floors should be insulated from the fire and molten metal splashes sheets of asbestos or other non-combustible material.

Safety during tiling

Below, we consider the basic safety regulations related to several stages tiling.

Preparation of tiles
To avoid accidental cuts, to sort the tiles should be in tight fist.
Cut ceramic, glass and plaster tiles, as well as handle cutting line must use safety glasses safety glasses and thick gloves.
Cut the PVC and polystyrene tiles should only be tight rein on the method of "on my own."

Surface preparation for facing
Degrease the surface should be using cloth wound around a wooden rod - it will eliminate skin contact with the acid and prevent the possibility of chemical burns.
To avoid burns, mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract evaporation, workplaces need to arrange ventilation.
In the preparation of a solution of hydrochloric acid for degreasing should first pour the water, and in it - acid, and in any case, not vice versa, as this may result in throwing acid.
In terms of tools, their arms must have a strong, reliable connection to the work surface, and the working surface must not have any defects: chipping, cracking, chipping.

Surface treatment, in particular in Skolkov convex irregularities, wear safety glasses.

Preparation of solutions and mastics
Want to see that all work related to the preparation and use of cement, should be done in a dense canvas overalls and gloves.
Prigotavlivaya solution based on liquid glass, you need to wear special goggles and a respirator. In case of contact with liquid glass on the skin, it should be removed immediately and the affected area of ​​the skin rinse well under cold running water. When cooking flammable sealant always follow fire safety: remove all sources of ignition, do not smoke or switch elektroobogrevatelnye devices.
When working with hot bitumen mastic, wear tight clothing, canvas gloves, and protective goggles.
As for safety when working with bituminous materials, there are some basic rules:
- Do not foaming and splashing bitumen;
- Bitumen should only cook in clear dry weather (ranked in the bitumen water, eg rain, may be released into the foam, and the flash);
- Need to dress up in costumes made of thick cloth gloves and a must-have;
- To work around the digester better together, in case misfortune to be able to provide assistance to each other;
- Buckets and other containers for carrying bitumen after work should be cleaned, preventing the formation of frozen bitumen (usually from burning).

Lining
Tiles should be laid in rubber gloves with a chemically resistant coating: with cement gloves will prevent corrosion of the skin, the use of chemical adhesives - save from burns.
When using flammable mastics and adhesives, as in their preparation, strict adherence to the rules of fire safety.
Containers with flammable ready mastics and adhesives do not open the metal tools to prevent sparks. Apply the paste to the flammable tiles should be a plastic or wooden spatula, and thickened pastes forbidden to heat over an open flame or electric burner.



Safety rules for earthworks
The main cause of injury during excavation is the collapse of the soil due to inadequate anchorage strength of the walls of trenches or pits, as well as due to improper disassembly wall mounts. Such a failure may occur during thawing of frozen soils.
Prevent a collapse of the soil and to ensure its sustainability in two ways:
1. Unit slope and staging fixtures.
2. Select the height of vertical projection.
The lack of protections in pits and trenches, as well as lighting after dark can cause accidents.
Damage to tools and machines installed in a variety of ground communications, such as electric cables, also leads to injury. In addition, when excavations can unexploded grenades, bombs, mines.
If detected in the soil communication or explosives, you should immediately stop excavation work. Construction sites in areas where during the Second World War were fighting, check the pre-mine detectors.
Before starting work, check for the existence of underground utilities, and then negotiate with the relevant organizations to temporarily postpone them.

Earthwork produce manual and mechanized. Pits and trenches can be dug for the conservation of soil and slope angle with vertical walls, with full or partial wall mount and without attachment.
Fixing slopes pits and trenches in the soft ground and is tongue and groove, with sandy and wet soils - a complete, inventory metal or wooden boards with screw struts, with dry and solid ground - boards with clearance between them. In any case, fixing should rise above the eyebrows at 20 cm
Natural moisture in soils in the absence of groundwater and the nearby underground utilities are digging trenches with vertical walls without attachments to the following depths:
- No more than 1 m in bulk sand and gravel bottoms;
- 1.25 m in sandy soils;
- 1.5 m in loam and clay soils;
- 2 m in dense terrain.
In dense clay soils pits maintaining vertical wall digging through rotary and trenchers to a depth of not more than S M. The descent people in the trenches are not allowed. In the case of the need to work in the trenches suit slopes.
Spread through the trenches on both sides fenced catwalks at night to be sure to cover.



Safety rules during cementing

More than half of all work on the isolation of structures are made using hot bitumen mastic. Burns bitumen - the most typical injury for non-compliance of simple safety rules. In order to prevent accidents when working with hot bitumen should perform the essential safety requirements.
Boilers for boiling bitumen establish a fireproof roof in specially lined exempt from other materials sites at least 50 m of wooden buildings. Made to prevent the molten bitumen in the fire pot set is not perfectly level, but with a slight slope away from the furnace.
Next to the boiler must be in a box of dry sand and a fire extinguisher designed to extinguish the bitumen in the event of fire. The boiler must be covered with a lid.
To extinguish the fire in the boiler can also use other bulk insulation materials: powdered asbestos asbozurit, mineral wool.
When cooking bitumen should follow safety bitumen mixing different brands. After laying in a bowl and melt the bitumen grade W and termination of foam can be added to bitumen to higher grades - 4, 5. In hot molten mass can not be added bitumen grade E, as this can lead to a large foam and overflow from the boiler. The capacity can be filled with bitumen only SW / 4 of its volume.
When cooking coal cements the rule components, similar to how the mixing bitumen. First, you must reheat the liquid ingredients, such as pitch, and then you can add solid components. The boiler is filled only half its volume.
Pieces dipped in bitumen boiler on chute to avoid splashing. Bituminous mastic is heated to a temperature of 200 ° C, coal - up to 150 ° C. Fire under the boiler should be moderate, not much weight to boiling. Pieces of coal tar pitch is lowered into the pot carefully to avoid splashing that can cause severe burns. Water damage to the boiler causing rapid weight foam and overflow through the edge of the boiler.
Bailing buckets weight of the boiler is not allowed, as this may result in burns. Hot pastes transferred to a conical tank, filled to the SW / 4 volume. The tank cover periodic cleaning of hardened pastes them.
Cooled mastic on the construction site can be heated in a bath heated.

Heating sealant on the open fire in places is prohibited.

Protective equipment
To protect against hazards apply special-clothing, footwear and other protective gear. For eye protection goggles used for various purposes of open and closed types of wire mesh, with silicate glass, organic safety glass. In order to prevent fog glass, rub them with a special pencil or a thin layer of glycerine soap.
Respiratory protection use special dust masks, hearing protection - hearing protectors.
To protect exposed skin using special pastes and ointments. They should apply a thin layer on the skin. Should be washed off with soap and water.
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