Safety in gas welding and gas cutting

When these types of work, the following types of injuries: electrocution, burns from metal droplets and slag, ocular and skin radiation arc, bruises and injuries from explosions of compressed gas cylinders and welding vessels from combustible substances, poisoning harmful gases , dust and fumes given off during welding.
To protect against electric shock must comply with the following conditions.
Frame Chassis arc welding products and welding accessories must be firmly grounded copper wire, one end of which is attached either to the metal rods driven into the ground, or to a common ground plane, and the other end attached to the body of the arc power source, namely, special screws labeled "Earth".
Grounding of portable power supplies operating from the time of entry into the power grid, and the removal of earth - only if the network.
Connecting the welding current to the network requires the mandatory use of wall boxes with circuit breakers, fuses and terminals. Mains wiring length should not exceed more than 10 m wire to hang at a height of 2.5-3 m input and output must be equipped with a funnel or sleeves that protect the wires from the excesses and isolation - from spoiling.
Connect and disconnect electric welding equipment, as well as monitor their serviceable condition during operation must electricians. Welders to perform such work is prohibited.
You can not use wires with damaged insulation and decrepit. Insulation must meet force applied current.
Outdoor applications welding equipment must be under cover to protect it from rain and snow. In the absence of these conditions, welding is not allowed. Be sure to use a rubber mat, rubber overshoes and a helmet, and knee and elbow rests, felt hemmed in welding the joints of boilers, pipes, tanks and other closed, and the more complex structures.
All electric welding equipment should be equipped with devices (ASN-1, ASN-30 or AST-500) automatic shut-off circuit voltage or limiting it to a safe value. Electric shocks to the victim assistance: first, to free him from the electric wires, provide fresh air, and with loss of consciousness as soon as possible, give artificial respiration and call the "first aid".
For protection against spatter and slag should be used clothing, and his face close shield, mask or helmet. It should be noted that the welding of horizontal, vertical and overhead welds need to wear canvas sleeves and tightly tie them on top of the sleeves.
Overalls welder consists of canvas suit, canvas or leather gloves and felt boots. Pants should be without flaps, smooth, with an overlap on top of shoes or boots.
Mittens should also be loose at the sleeves and tie ribbon.
To protect your eyes and skin from radiation arc should also use a mask, face shield or helmet, as the brightness of the light rays greatly exceeds the acceptable norm for the human eye and produces dazzling effect. UV radiation is invisible combustion arc can cause in a few seconds an eye disease called elektroftalmiya characterized by severe pain, lachrymation, spasms century rezyu eyes. From these rays on the skin after prolonged exposure a skin burn. The infrared emission spectrum of the combustion can cause clouding of the eye lens (cataract) and facial burns.
However, these remedies have an inspection opening, equipped with color filter, which reduces the brightness of the light rays of the arc and also delays the infrared and ultraviolet rays. Outside for protection from spatter filter protected simple clear glass.
Preventing the risk of explosion. An explosion can occur if improper storage, transportation and use a can of compressed gases as well as for welding in various capacities without having the cleaning of the remnants of flammable substances. Do not install cylinders near heat or sunlight. Cylinders in the workplace should be well entrenched in the upright position, which excludes any possibility of bumps and falls. In no case be warm flame reducer balloon with carbon dioxide and any compressed gas cylinders. Warming can only be done with a cloth dampened with hot water.

To use should be restricted to the last survey and serviceable tanks. Transport cylinders may be carried out on stretchers or on special suspension system strollers. For this to cylinders navertyvayut protective caps and put them on the wooden lining with pockets, padded with felt. We must always remember that the joint transportation of oxygen and acetylene cylinders is prohibited.
When working cylinder is fixed in a vertical position by a clamp at least 5 m from the welding area. Before working outlet tank to blow it out. The expenditure necessary to carry out the gas to a residual pressure of oxygen is not less than 0.05 MPa, and acetylene 0.05-0.1 MPa. On completion of work should be carefully close the cylinder valve, the gear and release the gas hose, then remove the gear, lock on the nozzle cap and screw the cap on the valve.
It should also be promptly examine cylinders (1 every 5 years) and a porous mass acetylene cylinders (1 per year).
It is strictly forbidden to keep grease and oily rags next to the oxygen cylinders. Container is needed before welding oil wash 2-3 times with hot 10% solution of alkali, and then blow the steam or air to remove odors. Thorough purging must be done prior to welding and gas pipelines.
Protection from poisoning noxious gases, dust and fumes. Air pollution these factors is particularly strong when dealing with high-quality coated electrodes. At the same time, the amount of dust and gas significantly less in automatic welding than manual. Welding is the dust on the physical properties of aerosols, consisting of suspension of particles of minerals and metal oxides in the gas phase. The main components of dust - iron oxides (70%), chromium, manganese, silicon, and fluoride. Most harmful for the body fluorine compounds, manganese and chromium. From gases emitted during welding in enclosed workplaces, most toxic oxides of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen fluoride, and others.
Therefore, to remove dust and harmful gases from the working area and clean air is necessary to organize general and local ventilation. General ventilation to do with supply and exhaust, while the local ventilation should be from top, bottom and side suction, ensuring the removal of dust and gases directly from the welding zone.
It is strictly forbidden to work in closed systems without ventilation, which consists in the supply of fresh air through the hose into the zone of the welder. Amount of air must be at least 30 m / h
In manual arc welding electrodes with high-quality coatings volume ventilation should be 4000-6000 m per 1 kg consumption of electrodes for welding in carbon dioxide - up to 1000. m per 1 kg is melted wire, and the automatic submerged arc welding - about 200 m. Permitted to use natural ventilation in the case, if the time electrode consumption of less than 0.2 kg per 1 m of space. In addition, the operation of gas-welding (rezochnogo) equipment must meet the following requirements.
Before welding should carefully read the instructions on how to use the rules and characteristics of different equipment (burners, tanks, motors, hoses). In case you do not have enough for the amount of work the practical knowledge you need to consult a specialist (you can have the working-gas welder).
The new equipment should be operated only during the warranty period, which ensures the safety of operations. Careful retry the test set-up and adjustment of the equipment in the terms specified in the data sheet. Moreover, test, and repair may only be carried out specialists.
Never weld and install the equipment near flammable materials. During the period of the generator can not be left without supervision, as well as move a loaded generator. Mobile acetylene generators to be installed at a minimum distance of 10 m from the sources of fire. These generators should be installed vertically and fill with water only up to the recommended level. Calcium carbide generator load to only the granulation, which is written in the passport machines. After loading of the substance should be carried out from the remains of the generator blowing air. To prevent freezing of the generator must be removed after use water. If the generator is still cold, then warm it can only be set aside or a cloth dampened with hot water, but no flame. Il be unloaded only after the final decomposition of carbide and only mud pit with the inscription on the prohibition of smoking.
Availability, serviceability and filled the water trap generator - a necessary condition for safe operation of the installation. Before any work is required to set the shutter through its mixing tap water level or low-freezing liquid (30% solution of calcium chloride in water or 60% solution of ethylene glycol in water), which is charged with air at temperatures below 0 ° C.
At the level of the liquid water trap must be installed at a height control valve. After welding the gate should be rinsed with water. Water trap weekly to check for leaks, and every 3 months to disassemble for cleaning and rinsing after assembly should find out the check valve seal reliability.
Calcium carbide should be stored in sealed drums, which should be in a well-ventilated and dry place. At the opening of the drum can not use a steel chisel and hammer to prevent sparks, very dangerous for acetylene-air mixtures. Autopsy permitted only with a special knife, and cover pre-coated with oil in the section (you can drill a hole and then cut with scissors to make). Can not be used and brass instruments, for acetylene in wet conditions can form acetylene copper to copper, which is very explosive even minor bumps.
Fixing gear on the tank should be done with care so as not to strip the threads, fastening must be sound. Oxygen supply to the gear is carried out only at very weak spring adjusting gear, and the valve should be opened slowly. Thus it is necessary to ensure that there is no leakage of oxygen. In identifying any faults it should be eliminated after preliminary closing the cylinder valve.
Gas supply hose to seal tightly and secured to the nipples tie clip. Monitoring the serviceability of gas pipelines and hoses must be conducted continuously.
It is strictly forbidden to reduce the oxygen pressure at the inlet of the cutter below the pressure of fuel in the tank, connect more than one burner to one gate, use a cutting torch or burner is not equipped with a check valve that prevents the hose from the penetration of flame move from the burner, and leave unattended cutter or with a lighted torch flame.
Not begin welding without fire-fighting equipment (fire extinguisher, barrels or buckets of water, boxes of sand and shovel) smoke when working with calcium carbide, liquid combustibles and acetylene generator, used for blowing oxygen clothing, and apply tools own making.
Location of gas-flame operations should be well cleaned of hazardous and flammable materials within 30 m of the need to conduct themselves at a distance of 1.5 m from gazorazbornyh stations and pipelines, 5 m - from the liquid fuel tanks and cylinders
10 m - from mobile generators. If the flame and sparks directed toward sources of power, to protect them should be used with metal screens. In vessels and tanks of gas-flame need to perform in the asbestos or canvas clothes, worked in the vessel must be equipped with safety ropes, safety belts, personal protection to the influx of fresh air.
When an effective flame welding should immediately stop valves on the torch or torch block and welders immediately leave the closed container (if it works). Then work should examine the integrity of the seal and install gears and hoses, as well as the liquid level in the gate, if you use the liquid valve.
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