Tools for sawing and cutting materials

Saws
Saws are used for cutting wood and metal. Saw has a metal tape (disk) with teeth. The gap between the tops of two adjacent teeth is called a step, and the gap between the top and the base of the tooth - the height of the tooth. I saw teeth have 2 side and 1 front cutting edges.
We saw, designed for longitudinal sawing lumber, teeth are made in the form of a triangle and have a straight grind, through which you can only cut in one direction. The front edge so the saw cuts the fiber, the two sides are separated one from the other.
We saw, designed for cross cutting, the teeth are mainly in the form of an isosceles triangle and have two-way sharpening. At the front of the saw sharpening separates fiber same side edge chop them.
Produced electric, manual and vykruzhnye saw. First used for both transverse and longitudinal cutting of materials such as bricks and boards. In addition, they can do some carpentry work, such as cutting angle. These saws are convenient in that work with them does not take too much time and effort. Widely used saws EP-5km, EP-K6, K-5M, IE-5107.
Saw EP-5km, EP-K6, K-5M needed when sawing unhewn logs, lumber, boards, beams. Cutting part of the saw chain saws is made up of teeth, which are bonded together by hinges.
While working with these saws should observe safety rules:
- Do not operate a chain saw in a humid room at a voltage of 36 V;
- To bring a saw, put it in a bag;
- After work to clean up the saw in a cabinet or in a designated place for it.
Saw the IE-5107 because of its speed (49 s-1) can saw wood material thickness of 65 mm. It can also be used as a stationary machine with the first set on a workbench.
To work with a saw to make the most secure, check for proper sharpened and divorced her teeth, as seated on the spindle drive to see if the disc for cracks and other damage. Check the condition of the gearbox drive shaft rotates. If the disk rotates with difficulty, liquefy grease, including a 60 with idle tools.
Then, when all the faults will be eliminated, with his right hand grasp the rear handle, and the left - the front, and set the cutter blade on the material, pre-fixed to the bench. Saw guide strictly scheduled line, smoothly, without jerks, since sudden and rapid movements disk tool can clog, resulting in damage to the motor.
In that case, if the disk is still jammed, and he stopped, electric saw little pouches to drive freed and received the required speed, and then continue sawing. If the disc does not reach the desired speed, work with the saw stopped.
When finished sawing, cut off tool, wipe with a cloth soaked in kerosene, and storing them.
Hand saws are manual (saws), transverse and Bow. Hacksaw designed for cutting small rods (Fig. 1).



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Fig. 1. Hacksaw Hand: 1 - hacksaw blade, 2 - handle 3 - rod, 4 - cage, 5.6 - right and left poluramki 7 - Slack Adjuster, 8 - lamb.

Regular hand hacksaw has the right and left poluramki that spliced ​​clip. On the right side is poluramki handle. Hacksaw blade is placed in the gap adjusting screw and rod, and then fixed pin. After that, pull the canvas tool lamb.
Hacksaw Blades available in lengths 320 and 370 mm. The width is 15 mm hacksaw and a thickness not exceeding 0.75 mm. Height profile of the tooth hacksaw can be 55-60 mm.
Select the number of teeth in a hacksaw blade depends on the job with a particular metal. For example, the web having 16 teeth, are suitable only for use with soft metal blade with 19 teeth are for products made of hard metal, and the canvas with 22 teeth are used when working with superhard metals.
Hacksaw to cut the rod, it is placed in a vice and clamp so that the line was cut close to the jaws. If you cut the part of the large width, set the saw in a horizontal position, and if the parts are cut from a corner or flat steel hacksaw held obliquely.
For best results, perform 40-50 minute movements saw. When moving the instrument forward makes the pressure, when moving back pressure is not done.
On the metal with which the work is carried out depends on the power of coercion. So, when cutting soft metals force pressure should be much smaller than the cutting of products from solid metal.
When working with hand-saw, to the canvas tool is not cracked and injuries to his hands, trying not to make any sudden movements with great pressure.
In addition to hand-saws, and also use electric. When you work with a hacksaw blade from time to time the tool wet liquid emulsion, so it does not overheat.
Saws are used for cross-cutting, as well as carpentry. Saw teeth look like isosceles triangles and oblique sharpening. The angle at the apex of the tooth usually leave 42-45 °. Saw blade thickness can be 1.1 and 1.4 mm.
Bow saws consist of onion made of hardwood trees, leaf length of 785-800 mm, strings made of twisted hemp or flax cord thickness of 3-4 mm. They can be transverse and longitudinal. In cross Bow Saw blade has a width of 22-25 mm, the distance between the teeth 4.5-5 mm, and the wedge angle 70-79 °. In longitudinal Bow Saw Blades make 50-55 mm wide, with a thickness of 0.5 to 0.7 mm, the distance between the teeth of 5 mm, the wedge angle 45-50 °.
Vykruzhnye saws used for cutting material on curved lines. Blade length of these saws 500 mm, width 5-15 mm, the distance between the teeth of 5 mm and a wedge angle 55-60 °. Saw teeth are straight sharpening.
To reduce the friction that causes the canvas tool may get stuck in the cut, the teeth are bred. To do this, put the blade in a vice and clamp. Then take a universal wiring and turn down the top of the teeth from the base of not less than 2/3 of their height. All even teeth reject one, and odd in the other direction.
If you have to work with hardwood trees, the teeth are bred for 0.25-0.5 mm. If materials need to be sawn softwood trees, the saw teeth are bred by 1 mm. To check whether a divorce is made using a pattern. To string long stretch, after work with a chainsaw twist slightly released.

Ax
Axes are straight and curved blades. Ax with a straight blade is required for cutting wood, the ax with a round blade - for decoration.
Such detail ax as handle, made of hardwood, such as ash, maple, beech, elm, birch.
Wood purchased without cracks, knots, rot and mildew. Ax well fine tuning first coarse and then fine sandpaper and coated with a layer of varnish, mixed with 11-12% strength ocher. Then, to extend the life of ax handles, it is covered with varnish.
Chisels
For cutting out holes pererubaniya wire and some metal bands use chisels of various kinds. For example, plumbing chisel oval made of special tool steel, steel cut about 1 mm thick, chisel Kogan having sufficiently broad cutter and cut through steel sheets up to 1 mm.
Small details on planned lines cut, pre-clamped in a vise, and the details of larger cut also planned lines, but only on a table covered with sheet metal thickness of 13-15 mm.
In the process of logging in the grip point to the fact that the cutting edge of the chisel was on par with the vice jaws. Detail for this clamp so that the risk was aligned with the edge of the liner of the vice. Details of steel up to 1.5mm thick chop off in 1 device, and a thickness of 1.6 mm or more - in 2 hours.
During felling shall ensure that the cutting edge of the tool to move strictly along the marked lines. Tool holding his left hand at a slight angle to chop off parts. By chisel hit with a hammer. Running the hole on one side of the part, the part over on the other side and repeat the same operation, and then breaking open with your fingers.
In the process of cutting parts shall ensure that the small pieces will fly off to the side, not hurt those who are nearby.
Chisel sharpening just like scissors.
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