Stairs to attic

For the message to the last attic floor of the house used ladders of different designs. There are certain requirements for the device ladder: it must be comfortable, durable, safe, have adequate capacity (width) to move the furniture, equipment and evacuation in case of emergency. In addition, it must meet fire protection requirements.
To ladder to blend in general appearance, when it is necessary to consider the design of residential style decoration of the house.
Ladder consists of two main elements - the areas and stairs. Marsh is a functional and structural elements connecting the two staircases and build on them. It consists of a series of steps. Steps are mounted on one or two inclined beam. Girders beneath the stairs, called stringers, on the sides of steps - withs.
The stairs and landings must have railings (railings with rails).
Ladders are one-, two-or trehmarshevymi. On the form itself can be divided into straight, rotating, curved and spiral (Fig. 151). In the individual building are useful odnomarshevye straight or turn and pace stair.





Виды лестниц   Виды лестниц

Fig. 151. Types of staircases: a - odnomarshevaya b - half-pace and in - with the turn, g - trehmarshevaya, e - spiral, e - round.



This structural element is sufficient space, which causes some inconvenience. One of the main tasks of the architect is a device as compact as possible ladder. To do this, it is advisable to use the stairs with a turn, do not have an intermediate rest areas. In addition, it is recommended to provide the so-called winder stairs. Feature of this device is that the steps as if they run one under the other. At its narrowest point (the inner portion of rotation) step width should be at least 100 mm.
Horizontal part of the stage is called the tread, and the interval between two adjacent tread - risers.
Number of steps in one flight of stairs should range from 3 to 18. Stair width is the distance between the rails or between the wall and railings. To people walking towards each other, could pass, the distance should be at least 900 mm.
Ease of use is determined by the staircase and its slope, which is the ratio of the tread or riser ratio march to its horizontal projection. To maintain a constant rhythmic movements on the stairs its slope should be about 27 °.
For the convenience of walking on stairs treads shall not be less than the length of the human foot. Step width can be increased to 30-50 mm by lapping tread on risers.
In the two-story brick and wooden houses are useful open wooden staircase, which fit perfectly into the interior of the house, carrying not only communication, but also a decorative role. As a material for the manufacture of a better use oak trees, pine and larch. Light staircase leading to the attic, usually located away from the main, but not far from it. They provide support for the floor beams.
There was widespread spiral staircases, because they occupy less space in the room, can be placed in the middle of the floor or wall, beautiful, netrudoemki and do not require high material costs. Carrier central pillar of a ladder is usually a metal tube, to which the circumference at intervals of 150-200 mm bracket welded tapered tread length of 700 mm. Treads can be made of wood, plastic and stainless steel with a rough upper surface. Risers may be absent, and attachment may be by joining the wide end of the stairs to the bar or railing enclosing tube.
Stage fan staircase, made of wood or concrete, are located around the brick pillars on which they rely narrow end. The wide end of stages based on the walls that enclose the stairs.
Occasionally lifting the attic you can use light ladders steep stairs like ladders. These include the staircase, called "duck step" (Fig. 152). In this embodiment, the tread divided into left and right and pushing each other on the correct height of each individual case level.



Лестница «утиный шаг»

Fig. 152. Ladder "duck step."



Treads have a truncated form, they are designed to ensure that the foot was based only on the wide part of the stage. The steps are based on the string or wood or metal stringers.
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